Current guidelines provide limited evidence as to which patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) require hospitalisation. We evaluated the currently used triage routine and tested whether a set of criteria including biomarkers like proadrenomedullin (proADM) and urea have the potential to improve triage decisions.
Consecutive adults with UTI presenting to our emergency department (ED) were recruited and followed for 30 days. We defined three virtual triage algorithms, which included either guideline-based clinical criteria, optimised admission proADM or urea levels in addition to a set of clinical criteria. We compared actual treatment sites and observed adverse events based on the physician judgment with the proportion of patients assigned to treatment sites according to the three virtual algorithms. Adverse outcome was defined as transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), death, recurrence of UTI or rehospitalisation for any reason.
We recruited 127 patients (age 61.8 ± 20.8 years; 73.2 % females) and analysed the data of 123 patients with a final diagnosis of UTI. Of these 123 patients, 27 (22.0 %) were treated as outpatients. Virtual triage based only on clinical signs would have treated only 22 (17.9 %) patients as outpatients, with higher proportions of outpatients equally in both biomarker groups (29.3 %; p = 0.02). There were no significant differences in adverse events between outpatients according to the clinical (4.5 %), proADM (2.8 %) or urea groups (2.8 %). The mean length of stay was 6.6 days, including 2.2 days after reaching medical stability.
Adding biomarkers to clinical criteria has the potential to improve risk-based triage without impairing safety. Current rates of admission and length of stay could be shortened in patients with UTI.
"For LRTI we showed that ProADM was the most accurate biomarker for prognostic assessment [31,34,35]. As it is not specific for LRTIs, we propose that ProADM will be an excellent marker for prediction of re-hospitalization and death in UTIs . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and drivers of antibiotic use and in-hospital days. A reduction of antibiotic use potentially lowers the risk of antibiotic resistance. An early and adequate risk assessment combining medical, biopsychosocial and functional risk scores has the potential to optimize site-of-care decisions and thus allocation of limited health-care resources. The aim of this factorial design study is twofold: first, for Intervention A, it investigates antibiotic exposure of patients treated with a protocol based on the type of UTI, procalcitonin (PCT) and pyuria. Second, for Intervention B, it investigates the usefulness of the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) integrated into an interdisciplinary assessment bundle for site-of-care decisions.
Methods and design
This randomized controlled open-label trial has a factorial design (2 × 2). Randomization of patients will be based on a pre-specified computer-generated randomization list and independent for the two interventions. Adults with UTI presenting to the emergency department (ED) will be screened and enrolled after providing informed consent.
For our first Intervention (A), we developed a protocol based on previous observational research to recommend initiation and duration of antibiotic use based on the clinical presentation of UTI, pyuria and PCT levels. For our second intervention (B), an algorithm was developed to support site-of care decisions based on the prognostic marker ProADM and distinct nursing factors on days 1 and 3. Both interventions will be compared with a control group conforming to the guidelines.
The primary endpoints for the two interventions will be: (A) overall exposure to antibiotics and (B) length of physician-led hospitalization within a follow-up of 30 days. Endpoints are assessed at discharge from hospital, and 30 and 90 days after admission. We plan to screen 300 patients and enroll 250 for an anticipated estimated loss of follow-up of 20%. This will provide adequate power for the two interventions.
This trial investigates two strategies for improved individualized medical care in patients with UTI. The minimally effective duration of antibiotic therapy is not known for UTIs, which is important for reducing the selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, costs and drug-related side effects. Triage decisions must be improved to reflect the true medical, biopsychosocial and functional risks in order to allocate patients to the most appropriate care setting and reduce hospital-acquired disability.
Trial registration number:
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
An intervention trial found a trend for shorter length of stay (LOS) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) when the CURB65 score was combined with the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) (CURB65-A). However, the efficacy and safety of CURB65-A in real life situations remains unclear.
From September, 2011, until April, 2012, we performed a post-study prospective observational quality control survey at the cantonal Hospital of Aarau, Switzerland of consecutive adults with CAP. The primary endpoint was length of stay (LOS) during the index hospitalization and within 30 days. We compared the results with two well-defined historic cohorts of CAP patients hospitalized in the same hospital with the use of multivariate regression, namely 83 patients in the observation study without ProADM (OPTIMA I) and the 169 patients in the intervention study (OPTIMA II RCT).
A total of 89 patients with confirmed CAP were included. As compared to patients with CURB65 only observed in the OPTIMA I study, adjusted regression analysis showed a significant shorter initial LOS (7.5 vs. 10.4 days; -2.32; 95% CI, -4.51 to -0.13; p = 0.04) when CURB65-A was used in clinical routine. No significant differences were found for LOS within 30 days. There were no significant differences in safety outcomes in regard to mortality and ICU admission between the cohorts.
This post-study survey provides evidence that the use of ProADM in combination with CURB65 (CURB65-A) in "real life" situations reduces initial LOS compared to the CURB65 score alone without apparent negative effects on patient safety.
Journal of Clinical Medicine 03/2014; 3(1-1):267-79. DOI:10.3390/jcm3010267
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical features in adult patients with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) who visited the emergency department (ED) and to determine the predictive factors of bacteremia among the initial presenting clinical features.
This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the ED of a tertiary hospital in Korea from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012. All adult patients who were diagnosed with febrile UTI and for whom data on blood and urine cultures were available were included in the study. Clinical examinations and laboratory tests were performed at the initial presentation.
A total of the 325 patients with febrile UTI (median age: 60 years) were included for analysis, of whom 82 % were female. Bacteremia was detected in 106 of the 325 patients (32.6 %), with Escherichia coli the most frequent pathogen detected (59.7 % of cases). Between the bacteremic and non-bacteremic groups, there was significant difference in age (67 vs. 57 years, respectively), flank pain (16 vs. 7.8 %), suprapubic discomfort (0 vs. 4.6 %), body temperature (38.8 vs. 38.3 °C), respiratory rate (21 vs. 20/min), platelet count (170 vs. 186 × 10(3)/μL), C-reactive protein (10.2 vs. 8.3 mg/dL), and procalcitonin (1.5 vs. 0.3 ng/mL) (P < 0.05 for all). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.05], systolic blood pressure of <90 mmHg (OR 3.27; 95 % CI 1.13-9.45), body temperature of >39 °C (OR 4.26; 95 % CI 2.28-7.96), and procalcitonin level of >0.5 ng/dL (OR 2.03; 95 % CI 1.07-3.86) were significantly associated with bacteremia.
Among our adult patients with febrile UTI, age, systolic blood pressure, body temperature, and procalcitonin were significantly associated with bacteremia. We therefore suggest that these factors should be considered when deciding upon treatment options for febrile UTI patients at the ED.
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