The gut microbiota—Masters of host development and physiology

1] Wallenberg Laboratory for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden. [2] Sahlgrenska Center for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden.
Nature Reviews Microbiology (Impact Factor: 23.57). 02/2013; 11(4). DOI: 10.1038/nrmicro2974
Source: PubMed


Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and its associated microbiota are key requirements for host health. Although the gut microbiota has previously been studied in the context of inflammatory diseases, it has recently become clear that this microbial community has a beneficial role during normal homeostasis, modulating the host's immune system as well as influencing host development and physiology, including organ development and morphogenesis, and host metabolism. The underlying molecular mechanisms of host-microorganism interactions remain largely unknown, but recent studies have begun to identify the key signalling pathways of the cross-species homeostatic regulation between the gut microbiota and its host.

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Available from: Felix Sommer, Mar 11, 2015
    • "Although, the term is restricted to gastro-intestinal (GI) tract only and does not involve other organs (Bischoff, 2011). The gut is the primary site for multitude of processes such as, digestion, fermentation, nutrient absorption, nutrient metabolism, intestinal integrity, immune recognition, immune regulation and development of immune tolerance (Sommer and Backhed, 2013). Gut is mainly composed of physical, chemical, immunological and microbiological components and acts as a selective barrier between the tissues of the bird and its luminal environment (Yegani and Korver, 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: 'Gut health' is a term currently gaining much more attentions in veterinary literature especially in poultry. It covers multiple positive aspects of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as the effective digestion by absorption of food, absence of GI illness, normal and stable intestinal microbiota, effective immune status and a state of well-being. Any disturbance or imbalance in above said aspects may influence the gut health. Thus it is necessary to maintain the balance of all possible associated factors related to gut health. Although till date this is being achieved in poultry farming by Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGPs). However, the growing concern over the transmission and the proliferation of resistant bacteria in human via the food chain has led to a ban of Antibiotic Growth Promoters (AGP) in livestock feed within the European Union since, 2006. As a result, new commercial additives derived from nature have been examined as part of alternative feed strategies for the future. Such products have several advantages over commonly used commercial antibiotics since they are residue free and recognized as safe items in the food industry. Certain natural alternatives recognized by scientific community as Natural Growth Promoters (NGPs) to preserve and maintain the balance of gut microbiota in poultry are summarized in present communication. The article is also enriched with possible mechanisms of action of NGPs with relevant examples by citing research results obtained by various authors in past and current years.
    Asian Journal of Poultry Science 11/2015; DOI:10.3923/ajpsaj.2016.
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    • "It is known that intestinal microbiota plays a role in regulating host cell proliferation and tissue repair [1] [2]. For example, germ-free mice have reduced intestinal epithelial cell turnover due to reduced proliferation, apoptosis, and crypt-to-tip cellular migration [3]. Germ-free mice also exhibit increased cancer incidence compared to conventional mice [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: The pathways regulating liver regeneration have been extensively studied within the liver. However, the signaling contribution derived from the gut microbiota to liver regeneration is poorly understood. METHODS: Microbiota and expression of hepatic genes in regenerating livers obtained from mice 0 hour to 9 days post 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PHx) were temporally profiled to establish their interactive relationships. RESULTS: PHx led to rapid changes in gut microbiota that was reflected in increased abundance of Bacteroidetes S24-7 and Rikenellaceae and decreased abundance of Firmicutes Clostridiales, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) was used to infer biological functional changes of the shifted microbiota. RNA-sequencing data revealed 6,125 genes with more than 2 folds difference in their expression levels during regeneration. By analyzing their expression pattern, six uniquely expressed patterns were observed. In addition, there were significant correlations between hepatic gene expression profiles and shifted bacterial populations during regeneration. Moreover, hepatic metabolism and immune function were closely associated with the abundance of Ruminococcacea, Lachnospiraceae, and S24-7. Bile acid (BA) profile was analyzed because bacterial enzymes produce BAs that significantly impact hepatocyte proliferation. The data revealed that specific bacteria were closely associated with the concentration of certain BAs and expression of hepatic genes. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data established, for the first time, an intimate relationship between intestinal microbiota and the expression of hepatic genes in regenerating livers.
    Journal of Hepatology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.09.022 · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    • "The resulting associations between animals and microbes profoundly influence the maturation of their tissues and the function of adult organs. In particular, the development of the vertebrate digestive tract, which harbors the vast majority of microbial cells in the body, is strongly influenced by the presence and composition of the gut microbiota (Bates et al., 2006; Olszak et al., 2012; Semova et al., 2012; Sommer and Bäckhed, 2013). A comprehensive description of animal development must, therefore, include not only a catalog of the birth, specification and differentiation of the animal cells that comprise the body but also the associated microbial cells (McFall-Ngai et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: The assembly of resident microbial communities is an important event in animal development; however, the extent to which this process mirrors the developmental programs of host tissues is unknown. Here we surveyed the intestinal bacteria at key developmental time points in a sibling group of 135 individuals of a model vertebrate, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our survey revealed stage-specific signatures in the intestinal microbiota and extensive interindividual variation, even within the same developmental stage. Microbial community shifts were apparent during periods of constant diet and environmental conditions, as well as in concert with dietary and environmental change. Interindividual variation in the intestinal microbiota increased with age, as did the difference between the intestinal microbiota and microbes in the surrounding environment. Our results indicate that zebrafish intestinal microbiota assemble into distinct communities throughout development, and that these communities are increasingly different from the surrounding environment and from one another.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 4 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.140.
    The ISME Journal 09/2015; DOI:10.1038/ismej.2015.140 · 9.30 Impact Factor
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