Unbalanced neuronal circuits in addiction

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. Electronic address: .
Current opinion in neurobiology (Impact Factor: 6.77). 02/2013; 23(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.conb.2013.01.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Through sequential waves of drug-induced neurochemical stimulation, addiction co-opts the brain's neuronal circuits that mediate reward, motivation to behavioral inflexibility and a severe disruption of self-control and compulsive drug intake. Brain imaging technologies have allowed neuroscientists to map out the neural landscape of addiction in the human brain and to understand how drugs modify it.

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Available from: Ruben D Baler, Aug 30, 2015
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    • "These dopamine spikes are thought to become hyper-salient incentive cues that elicit the phenomenon of 'wanting' (Berridge 2007), and dwarf the reward value of other occupational activities. These underpinnings are thought to account for the observed behaviour (participation in the addiction at the expense of engaging in other occupational responsibilities) of people with addictions (Volkow et al 2013). Attempts to abstain from the addictive behaviour are thwarted due to a number of neurobiological changes affecting dopamine transmission and other related neuronal processes (Koob and Le Moal 2005). "
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    • "Particularly, Pavlovian conditioning tunes the motivational drive of drug-associated stimuli, fostering the probability of those environmental stimuli to promote and trigger drug seeking and taking [1]. Previous studies have strongly suggested that drug-cue associative memories are stored and reactivated by dopamine–glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia, basolateral amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex [5] [6]. Interestingly , different areas in the cerebellum are involved in the formation and long-lasting storage of Pavlovian emotional memory [7] [8]. "
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    • "In turn, these insights may lead to novel applications targeted at decreasing drinking in situations where the risk of negative consequences is high. Studies investigating the neural correlates of AD have focused on a dual-process account of addiction where addictive behavior is considered to be the outcome of two independent neural systems—a reward-driven, bottomup , approach system versus a cognitive control-driven, top-down, avoidance system (Goldstein & Volkow 2002; Kalivas & Volkow 2005; Bickel et al. 2007; Cousijn et al. 2012; Volkow et al. 2013). A large body of research demonstrates that reward systems become hypersensitive in AD. "
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