ART and tuberculosis: the final nail in nevirapine's coffin?

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address: .
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 22.43). 02/2013; 13(4). DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70049-5
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Nevirapine (NVP) can be safely and effectively administered once-daily but has not been assessed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB). We studied the safety and efficacy of once-daily NVP, compared with efavirenz (EFV; standard therapy); both drugs were administered in combination with 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors. An open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at 3 sites in southern India. HIV-infected patients with TB were treated with a standard short-course anti-TB regimen (2EHRZ(3)/4RH(3); [2 months of Ethambutol, Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide / 4 months of Isoniazid and Rifampicin] thrice weekly) and randomized to receive once-daily EFV at a dose of 600 mg or NVP at a dose of 400 mg (after 14 days of 200 mg administered once daily) with didanosine 250/400 mg and lamivudine 300 mg after 2 months. Sputum smears and mycobacterial cultures were performed every month. CD4+ cell count, viral load, and liver function test results were monitored periodically. Primary outcome was a composite of death, virological failure, default, or serious adverse event (SAE) at 24 weeks. Both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses were done, and planned interim analyses were performed. A total of 116 patients (75% [87 patients] of whom had pulmonary TB), with a mean age of 36 years, a median CD4+ cell count of 84 cells/mm(3), and a median viral load of 310 000 copies/mL, were randomized. At 24 weeks, 50 of 59 patients in the EFV group and 37 of 57 patients in the NVP group had virological suppression (P = .024). There were no deaths, 1 SAE, and 5 treatment failures in the EFV arm, compared with 5 deaths, 2 SAEs, and 10 treatment failures in the NVP arm. The trial was halted by the data and safety monitoring board at the second interim analysis. Favorable TB treatment outcomes were observed in 93% of the patients in the EFV arm and 84% of the patients in the NVP arm (P = .058). Compared with a regimen of didanosine, lamivudine, and EFV, a regimen of once-daily didanosine, lamivudine, and NVP was inferior and was associated with more frequent virologic failure and death. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00332306.
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence of the risk of birth defects with efavirenz use is limited. We updated a meta-analysis of birth defects in infants with first trimester efavirenz exposure up to July 2011. In 21 studies, there were 39 defects among live births in 1437 women receiving first trimester efavirenz [2.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-3.18]. The relative risk of defects comparing women on efavirenz-based (1290 live births) and nonefavirenz-based regimens (8122 live births) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.61-1.20). One neural tube defect was observed (myelomeningocele), giving an incidence of 0.07% (95% CI 0.002-0.39).
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    ABSTRACT: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to be associated with time-dependent reductions in tuberculosis (TB) incidence, the long-term impact of ART on incidence remains imprecisely defined due to limited duration of follow-up and incomplete CD4 cell count recovery in existing studies. We determined TB incidence in a South African ART cohort with up to 8 years of follow-up and stratified rates according to CD4 cell count recovery. We compared these rates with those of HIV-uninfected individuals living in the same community. Prospectively collected clinical data on patients receiving ART in a community-based cohort in Cape Town were analysed. 1544 patients with a median follow-up of 5.0 years (IQR 2.4-5.8) were included in the analysis. 484 episodes of incident TB (73.6% culture-confirmed) were diagnosed in 424 patients during 6506 person-years (PYs) of follow-up. The TB incidence rate during the first year of ART was 12.4 (95% CI 10.8-14.4) cases/100PYs and decreased to 4.92 (95% CI 3.64-8.62) cases/100PYs between 5 and 8 years of ART. During person-time accrued within CD4 cell strata 0-100, 101-200, 201-300, 301-400, 401-500, 501-700 and ≥700 cells/µL, TB incidence rates (95% CI) were 25.5 (21.6-30.3), 11.2 (9.4-13.5), 7.9 (6.4-9.7), 5.0 (3.9-6.6), 5.1 (3.8-6.8), 4.1 (3.1-5.4) and 2.7 (1.7-4.5) cases/100PYs, respectively. Overall, 75% (95% CI 70.9-78.8) of TB episodes were recurrent cases. Updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were independently associated with long-term TB risk. TB rates during person-time accrued in the highest CD4 cell count stratum (>700 cells/µL) were 4.4-fold higher that the rate in HIV uninfected individuals living in the same community (2.7 versus 0.62 cases/100PYs; 95%CI 0.58-0.65). TB rates during long-term ART remained substantially greater than rates in the local HIV uninfected populations regardless of duration of ART or attainment of CD4 cell counts exceeding 700 cells/µL.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e34156. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034156 · 3.23 Impact Factor