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Available from: Robert T Chen, Apr 28, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Combination vaccines have improved the efficiency of delivery of new vaccines in low and middle-income countries. Post-authorization monitoring of adverse events (AEs) after vaccination with a liquid pentavalent DTwP-HepB-Hib combination vaccine was conducted in Guatemalan infants. A prospective observational safety study of the incidence of medical attended events (MAEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) in children who received pentavalent and oral polio vaccines at 2, 4 and 6 months of age was conducted in two clinics at the Institute of Guatemala. Parents were contacted by telephone after each dose. All outpatient, emergency department visits, and hospitalizations were monitored. A self-controlled analysis was conducted to determine if there was evidence of increased risk of MAEs or SAEs following vaccines as compared to control time windows. Of 3000 recruited infants, 2812 (93.7%) completed the third dose and 2805 (93.5%) completed follow-up. Ten AEs in eight infants, of which four SAEs in four infants, were classified as related to the vaccine. Thirteen deaths were reported due to common illnesses of infancy, and none were judged to be related to the vaccine. The mortality rate (4.4 per 1000) was lower than expected for the population. The incidence-rate-ratio for healthcare visits was lower in post-vaccination time windows than for control windows; after the first vaccine dose, the rate ratios for the risk periods of 0-1, 2-6, and 7-30 days post-vaccination were 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7, respectively (all statistically significantly different from the reference value of 1.0 for the 31-60 day control period). The liquid pentavalent vaccine was associated with lower rates of health care visits and not associated with increases in SAEs or hospitalizations. Systems can be set up in low to middle income countries to capture all health care visits to monitor the safety of new vaccines.
    Vaccine 09/2013; 31(49). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.015 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    Oral Oncology 07/2011; 47. DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.06.346 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development and increasing diffusion of new vaccinations and global immunization protocols have aroused burning debates about safety of adjuvants and their immunogenicity-enhancing effect in vaccines. Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin have grouped under the term "autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants" (ASIA) a complex of variable signs and symptoms that may occur after a previous exposure to different adjuvants and also external environmental triggers, even eliciting specific overt immune-mediated disorders. This entity subsumes five medical conditions: post-vaccination phenomena, gulf war syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, siliconosis, and sick building syndrome, but the relevance and magnitude of the syndrome in the pediatric age is fundamentally limited to post-vaccination autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. The occurrence of vaccine-triggered phenomena represents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and a research conundrum for many investigators. In this paper, we will analyze the general features of ASIA and focus on specific post-vaccination events in relation with the pediatric background. In the presence of a favorable genetic background, many autoimmune/inflammatory responses can be triggered by adjuvants and external factors, showing how the man himself might breach immune tolerance and drive many pathogenetic aspects of human diseases. Nonetheless, the elective application of ASIA diagnostic criteria to the pediatric population requires further assessment and evaluations. Additional studies are needed to help clarify connections between innate or adaptive immunity and pathological and/or protective autoantibodies mostly in the pediatric age, as children and adolescents are mainly involved in the immunization agendas related to vaccine-preventable diseases.
    Immunologic Research 11/2014; 60(2-3). DOI:10.1007/s12026-014-8586-0 · 3.53 Impact Factor