Schistosoma mansoni ex vivo lung-stage larvae excretory-secretory antigens as vaccine candidates against schistosomiasis
ABSTRACT Schistosoma mansoni lung-stage larvae are known to be the major target of innate and acquired immunity to schistosomiasis. Lung schistosomula cytosolic or surface membrane antigens are hidden, entirely inaccessible to the host immune system, and hence are not particularly important as vaccine candidates. Conversely, excretory-secretory (E-S) products released from intact, viable, elongated, and contractile schistosomula are ideal potential vaccines, as such molecules can readily play a central role in the induction of local primary and memory immune response effectors that would directly target, surround, and pursue the larvae while negotiating the lung capillaries. Therefore, 6-day-old ex vivo larvae were isolated from mouse or hamster lung cells and used for generation of E-S products, which were shown to elicit strong immune responses and significant (P<0.05) protection against challenge infection in BALB/c mice. Proteomic analysis of E-S molecules following 10x concentration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified peptides related to innumerable host and about 15 S. mansoni-specific proteins. Selected S. mansoni-specific E-S peptides prepared in a multiple antigen peptide (MAP) or recombinant form were shown to stimulate considerable specific antibody response and peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of mRNA for several cytokines in immunized C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. However, highly significant (P<0.05 to <0.005) reduction in challenge infection worm burden and egg load was recorded only when the immunization conditions in test mice provided the S. mansoni antigen-specific T helper (Th) type response milieu favorable for each immunogen. That was polarized Th1 for S. mansoni aldolase and thioredoxin peroxidase 1 MAPs, polarized Th2 for recombinant 14-3-3-like protein, mixed Th1/Th17 for calpain MAP, and mixed Th1/Th2 for recombinant p18 protein. The findings together indicated that the immune responses issue is as critical as the nature and source of the antigen for the development of vaccine against schistosomiasis.
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- "After schistosome cercariae penetrate the skin and transform into schistosomula, they enter the vasculature and migrate (depending on species) to the portal or bladder vessels via the lungs. The first 3 to 5 days of this migratory process between the skin and the lungs is thought to represent the most susceptible stage to antibody-mediated killing (El Ridi and Tallima, 2009; McManus and Loukas, 2008; Mountford et al., 1995). "
ABSTRACT: Approximately one billion people are infected with hookworms and/or blood flukes (schistosomes) in developing countries. These two parasites are responsible for more disability adjusted life years lost than most other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), and together, are second only to malaria. Although anthelmintic drugs are effective and widely available, they do not protect against reinfection, resistant parasites are likely to emerge, and mass drug administration programs are unsustainable. Therefore, there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines against these parasites. In recent years, there have been major advances in our understanding of hookworms and schistosomes at the molecular level through the use of "omics" technologies. The secretomes of these parasites have been characterized using transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics, and newly developed gene manipulation and silencing techniques, and the proteins of interest are now the target of novel antigen discovery approaches, notably immunomics. This research has resulted in the discovery, development, and early stage clinical trials of subunit vaccines against hookworms and schistosomes.Omics: a journal of integrative biology 06/2011; 15(9):567-77. DOI:10.1089/omi.2010.0150 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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- "This suggested that those genes function primarily in the cercariae and egg stages, respectively. The lung-stage schistosomula has been regarded to be the most susceptible to the immune response, and it is a target for vaccine development and rational drug design (El Ridi and Tallima, 2009; McManus and Loukas, 2008). Eight Sj-tsp genes were most highly expressed in schistosomula (Fig. 4B); however, two genes, tsp-2 and tsp-25, were variable and one gene, tsp-7, was alternatively spliced, which impair their potential as antigen candidates. "
ABSTRACT: Tetraspanins (TSPs) are proteins found on the surface of the parasite Schistosoma mansoni that have been regarded as potential protective antigens. However, divergent evolution may occur among the species of S. mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum under different environmental pressure. Thus, it was essential to characterize the S. japonicum TSP family members before selecting potential candidate TSP antigens. In this study, we used bioinformatics and experimental validation to investigate 29 TSP members from S. japonicum, including all known genes, Sj23, TE736, Sj25, and Sj-TSP-2. Five TSP members were found to be variable, and two others (Sj-tsp genes) were alternatively spliced. The phylogenetic analysis showed that schistosome TSPs were highly divergent from those of other phyla. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the Sj-tsp genes were differentially transcribed in the developmental stages of cercariae, schistosomula, adult worms, and eggs. Six Sj-tsp genes were significantly up-regulated during the transformation from cercariae to schistosomula. Four Sj-tsp genes, including Sj-tsp-1, Sj-tsp-8, Sj-tsp-14, and Sj-tsp-26 were confirmed as potential protective antigens based on the molecular characterization. RNAi was preformed against the conserved Sj-tsp genes which were highly expressed in schistosomula to explore gene functions. These data will promote the identification of candidate antigens within the TSP family for developing novel vaccines against S. japonicum infections.Acta tropica 03/2011; 117(3):216-24. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.01.001 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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- "This represents a mechanism of immune evasion utilized by hemo-helminths to evade the protective host immune response [6,8–10]. This novel protein, calpain, has two subunits, the larger of which, Sm-p80, was shown in our previous studies [9,11–15] and of other investigators     to have a great potential as relevant vaccine antigen for reduction of the morbidity associated with both Schistosoma mansoni  and Schistosoma japonicum  because of its pronounced antifecundity and anti-worm effects in mice. In the present study we have examined the prophylactic and antifecundity efficacy of an Sm-p80-based DNA vaccine formulation against S. mansoni in a nonhuman primate model. "
ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease for which there is no available vaccine. We have focused on a functionally important antigen of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-p80, as a vaccine candidate because of its consistent immunogenicity, protective potential and antifecundity effect observed in murine models; and for its pivotal role in the immune evasion process. In the present study we report that an Sm-p80-based DNA vaccine formulation confers 38% reduction in worm burden in a nonhuman primate model, the baboon (Papio anubis). Animals immunized with Sm-p80-pcDNA3 exhibited a decrease in egg production by 32%. Sm-p80 DNA elicited specific immune responses that include IgG; its subtypes IgG1 and IgG2; and IgM in vaccinated animals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from immunized animals when stimulated in vitro with Sm-p80 produced appreciably more Th1 response enhancing cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma) than Th2 response enhancing cytokines (IL-4, IL-10). PBMCs produced appreciably more spot-forming units for INF-gamma than for IL-4 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays. Overall it appears that even though a mixed (Th1/Th2) type of humoral antibody response was generated following immunization with Sm-p80; the dominant protective immune response is Th1 type. These data reinforce the potential of Sm-p80 as an excellent vaccine candidate for schistosomiasis.Vaccine 04/2009; 27(21):2830-7. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.096 · 3.49 Impact Factor