Wheat ( Triticum spp. L.), rye ( Secale cereal L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds contain peptides toxic to celiac patients. Maize ( Zea mays L.) and rice ( Oryza sativa L.) are distant relatives of wheat as well as sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and are known to be safe for celiacs. Both immunochemical studies and in vitro and in vivo challenge of wheat-free sorghum food products support this conclusion, although molecular evidence is missing. The goal of the present study was to provide biochemical and genetic evidence that sorghum is safe for celiac patients. In silico analysis of the recently published sorghum genome predicts that sorghum does not contain peptides that are toxic for celiac patients. Aqueous/alcohol-soluble prolamins (kafirins) from different sorghum varieties, including pure lines and hybrids, were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses as well as an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the R5 antibody. These analyses provide molecular evidence for the absence of toxic gliadin-like peptides in sorghum, confirming that sorghum can be definitively considered safe for consumption by people with celiac disease.
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"Sorghum is considered as a safe food for celiac patients suffering from symptoms associated with an immune reaction to gluten proteins found in all Triticum species and closely related cereals such as barley and rye (Kasarda, 2001; Ciacci et al., 2007). Recently, molecular evidence demonstrating the absence of toxic gliadin-like peptides in sorghum was reported, confirming that sorghum can be considered safe for consumption by people with celiac disease (Pontieri et al., 2013). In recent years, sorghum hybrids that produce white grain from a tan-color plant (often called " food-grade " sorghum) have been developed for production of WFF for persons with CD (Tuinstra, 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mineral nutrients play a fundamental role in the biochemical and physiological functions of biological systems. Cereals may especially be an important source of essential minerals in view of their large daily intake both for human health and nutrition. Sorghum, among the cereals, is a major crop being used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral contents in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids, bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The seven hybrids were analyzed for grain ash and for minerals contents. Nutritionally, essential macro-, micro-and trace elements content were investigated. The analysis of essential elements was performed by mass spectrometry using a mix solution of internal isotopes standard. The results demonstrated that food-grade sorghum was characterized by high Mg, Fe and Zn content, high K:Na ratio and low Ca:P ratio, compared to other crops, due to the fact that the grain mineral contents of crop species are influenced by the effects of genotypes and environments. Significant variations in the essential elements content were found among the hybrids which allowed us to divide them into three distinct groups on the basis of their mineral profile by cluster analysis. These results are discussed with reference to the importance of minerals in human nutrition and suggest that, like wheat, it is possible to plan research programs for the improvement and selection of sorghum hybrids with high micronutrients content.
Australian Journal of Crop Science 11/2014; 8:1550-1559. · 1.63 Impact Factor
"Wheat gluten has a major limitation as a bioplastic material in food-related and biomedical applications, in that amino acid sequences in its gliadin and glutenin proteins are responsible for celiac toxicity and wheat allergies (Weiser and Koehler 2008). There is limited evidence that some people may be allergic to precursors of zein (Pastorello et al 2009) and good evidence that kafirin is nontoxic to celiac sufferers (Pontieri et al 2013). The method of extraction affects the composition of the prolamins , which in turn influences the functional properties of bioplastics made from them (Schober et al 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite much research, there are very few commercial prolamin bioplastics. The major reason, apart from their high cost, is that they have inferior functional properties compared with synthetic polymer plastics. The inferior functional properties are because the prolamins are complex, each consisting of several classes and subclasses, and the functional properties of their bioplastics are greatly affected by water. Prolamin bioplastics are produced by controlled protein aggregation from a solvent or by thermoplastic processing. Recent research indicates that aggregation occurs by polypeptide self-assembly into nanostructures. Protein secondary structure in terms of α-helical and β-sheet structure seems to play a key but incompletely understood role in assembly. Also, there is inadequate knowledge as to how these nanostructures further assemble and organize into the various forms of prolamin bioplastics such as films, fibers, microparticles, and scaffolds. Many methods have been investigated to improve prolamin bioplastic functionality, including better solvation of the prolamins, plasticization, physical and chemical cross-linking, derivatization, and blending with synthetic and natural polymers, and some success has been achieved. The most promising area of commercialization is the biomedical field, in which the relative hydrophilicity, compatibility, and biodegradability of, particularly, zein and kafirin are advantageous. With regard to biomedical applications, "supramolecular design" of prolamin bioplastics through control over inter- and intramolecular weak interactions and disulfide/sulfhydryl interchange appears to have considerable potential.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, gluten free foods have attracted much research interest motivated by the increasing market. Despite the motivation for developing gluten-free foods it is necessary to have a scientific basis for developing gluten-free foods and the tools for detecting the peptide sequence that could be immune-toxic to some persons. This review will be focused primarily on the cereal-based commodities available for developing gluten free blends, considering naturally gluten-free cereals in addition to oats, and recent transgenic approaches for developing cereals free of immunotoxic gluten. Secondly, the biochemical tools for mimicking gluten network viscoelastic properties will be presented. Finally, special emphasis will be put in compiling the available techniques for gluten detection and quantitation.