Sorghum, a Healthy and Gluten-free Food for Celiac Patients As Demonstrated by Genome, Biochemical, and Immunochemical Analyses
ABSTRACT Wheat ( Triticum spp. L.), rye ( Secale cereal L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds contain peptides toxic to celiac patients. Maize ( Zea mays L.) and rice ( Oryza sativa L.) are distant relatives of wheat as well as sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and are known to be safe for celiacs. Both immunochemical studies and in vitro and in vivo challenge of wheat-free sorghum food products support this conclusion, although molecular evidence is missing. The goal of the present study was to provide biochemical and genetic evidence that sorghum is safe for celiac patients. In silico analysis of the recently published sorghum genome predicts that sorghum does not contain peptides that are toxic for celiac patients. Aqueous/alcohol-soluble prolamins (kafirins) from different sorghum varieties, including pure lines and hybrids, were evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC analyses as well as an established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the R5 antibody. These analyses provide molecular evidence for the absence of toxic gliadin-like peptides in sorghum, confirming that sorghum can be definitively considered safe for consumption by people with celiac disease.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Pasquale De Vita, Jul 04, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: Jacopo Troisi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mineral nutrients play a fundamental role in the biochemical and physiological functions of biological systems. Cereals may especially be an important source of essential minerals in view of their large daily intake both for human health and nutrition. Sorghum, among the cereals, is a major crop being used for food, feed and industrial purposes worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the mineral contents in grains of seven white food-grade sorghum hybrids, bred and adapted for growth in the central USA and grown in a Mediterranean area of Southern Italy. The seven hybrids were analyzed for grain ash and for minerals contents. Nutritionally, essential macro-, micro-and trace elements content were investigated. The analysis of essential elements was performed by mass spectrometry using a mix solution of internal isotopes standard. The results demonstrated that food-grade sorghum was characterized by high Mg, Fe and Zn content, high K:Na ratio and low Ca:P ratio, compared to other crops, due to the fact that the grain mineral contents of crop species are influenced by the effects of genotypes and environments. Significant variations in the essential elements content were found among the hybrids which allowed us to divide them into three distinct groups on the basis of their mineral profile by cluster analysis. These results are discussed with reference to the importance of minerals in human nutrition and suggest that, like wheat, it is possible to plan research programs for the improvement and selection of sorghum hybrids with high micronutrients content.Australian Journal of Crop Science 11/2014; 8:1550-1559. · 1.63 Impact Factor
- Cereal Chemistry 07/2013; 90(4):000-000. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-12-12-0165-IA · 1.06 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently, gluten free foods have attracted much research interest motivated by the increasing market. Despite the motivation for developing gluten-free foods it is necessary to have a scientific basis for developing gluten-free foods and the tools for detecting the peptide sequence that could be immune-toxic to some persons. This review will be focused primarily on the cereal-based commodities available for developing gluten free blends, considering naturally gluten-free cereals in addition to oats, and recent transgenic approaches for developing cereals free of immunotoxic gluten. Secondly, the biochemical tools for mimicking gluten network viscoelastic properties will be presented. Finally, special emphasis will be put in compiling the available techniques for gluten detection and quantitation.Journal of Cereal Science 01/2013; 59(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2013.10.001 · 1.94 Impact Factor