Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p < 0.001) in prevalences, indicating the cattle tested had a greater exposure to T. gondii than N. caninum, and they should be regarded as a potential source of T. gondii infection to humans. The low prevalence of neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.
"Prior surveys for anti-N. caninum antibodies among cattle and water buffalo in Thailand reported seroprevalence values ranging from 2.4 to 73.3% with a median of 24.65% (Chanlun et al., 2007; Dubey et al., 2007; Jittapalapong et al., 2008; Nam et al., 2012; Wiengcharoen et al., 2012, 2010). Using this average to estimate the prevalence (p) of N. caninum among water buffalo in Thailand, a 95% confidence level (t) and 5% margin of error (m), the minimal sample size (n) of 67 was calculated based on the equation, n = t 2 × p(1 − p)/m 2 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an enigmatic coccidian and an intracellular obligate protozoan parasite, causes high infection rate and disease burden in humans worldwide. Toxoplasmosis is an important food- and waterborne parasitic disease. The seroprevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis is estimated to vary from <2 % up to 70 % among people living in Southeast Asia. Contact with cats and consumption of uncooked meat are the most common risk factors in the transmission of Toxoplasma infection. Interestingly, a similar prevalence rate of toxoplasmosis is also reported among infected animals. In view of this clinical scenario, toxoplasmosis is an etiological factor in pregnant women related to abortion, stillbirth, and bad obstetric history. It requires consideration in differential diagnosis of patients with unexplained lymphadenopathy. Moreover, toxoplasmosis is found to be a common cause in patients with posterior uveitis. With the concurrent HIV/AIDS pandemic, toxoplasmosis is shown to be highly prevalent in HIV-infected patients with substantial incidence of AIDS-related toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) being reported mainly from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Majority of active TE patients presented with typical neurological manifestations with CD4 count of less than 100 cells/cumm. Diagnosis of TE is based on positive Toxoplasma serostatus and typical ring-enhancing lesions in the brain on CT scan finding. Despite an effective anti-Toxoplasma therapy, cases of relapsing TE are still reported. So far, there is no outbreak of toxoplasmosis related to animals or humans documented in Southeast Asia.
Parasites and their vectors, A special focus on Southeast Asia edited by Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Indra Vythilingam, 12/2013: chapter Toxoplasma gondii: The Parasite in Trend: pages 155-175; Springer Vienna., ISBN: 978-3-7091-1553-4
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of secreted proteins in Toxoplasma gondii that play important roles in host-pathogen interactions and parasite virulence, particularly in the mouse model. However, the role that these proteins play in driving the unique features of T. gondii compared to some of its nearest apicomplexan relatives (Hammondia hammondi and Neospora caninum) is unknown. These unique feature include distinct dissemination characteristics in vivo and a vast host range. In this review we comprehensively survey what is known about disease outcome, the host response, and host range for T. gondii, H. hammondi and N. caninum. We then review what is presently known about recently identified secreted virulence effectors in these three genetically-related, but phenotypically distinct, species. Finally we exploit the existence of genome sequences for these three organisms and discuss what is known about the presence, and functionality, of key T. gondii effectors in these three species.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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