Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2013; 3(1): 49-51 ISSN: 2277-4149
International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied
Available online at www.irjpas.com
Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2013; 3(1): 49-51
Tupe SB et al, 2013
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING IN SOME CUCURBITACEAE MEMBERS
Tupe SB, Patil PD, Thoke RB and Aparadh VT
Department of Botany, Y.C.I.S, Satara-415001(MS), India.
(Received: 08 February, 2013; Accepted: 15 February, 2013; Published: 25 February, 2013)
Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
Abstract: A Phytochemical is a natural bioactive compound produced by plant body as secondary metabolites (mostly in fruits,
vegetables and nuts) that works with nutrients and dietary fibre to protect against pathogenic attack. Phyochemicals are usually
associated to plant pigments. So, fruits and vegetables thats are bright colours – yellow, orange, red, green, blue and purple.
Current article deals with the Phytochemical screening of cucurbitaceae members viz. Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula and
Momordica subangulata. The Phytochemical test of these plants were carried out by standred methods with reference to
Alkaloids, Flavonoid, Saponin, Tannin, Carbohydrates, Glycoside, Anthocyannin, etc.
Keywords: Cucurbitaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Momordica subangulata, Phytochemicals
India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and
appropriately called the Botanical garden of the world1.
Pharmacognostical study is the preliminary step in the
standardization of crude drugs. Since ancient times plants
have been traditionaly used in therapeutic practices for the
treatment of different types of ailments [2-6]. There are a
number of crude drugs where the plant source has not yet
been scientifically identified. A phytochemical is a natural
bioactive compound found in plants foods that works with
nutrients and dietary fibre to protect against diseases. Many
researchers suggest that, phytochemical working together
with nutrients found in fruits, vegetables and nuts. They can
have complementary and overlapping mechanism of action
in the body including antioxidant effect. Hence here is an
attempts have been done for preliminary phytochemical
screening of alcoholic and aqueous extracts was performed
from Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula and Momordica
subangulata plants of Cucurbitaceae family.
Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have
protective or disease preventive properties some of the well
known of them are Lycopene in tomato, isoflavones in soy
& flavonoids in fruits7. Recently, the perform of traditional
herbal medicines became popular throughout the world.
Family cucurbitaceae consist of various sqashes, melons and
gourds including crops such as cucurbits, pumpkins, luffas
and watermelon. The family predominantly distributed
around the tropics, were those with edible fruits were among
the earliest cultivated plants in both the old and new worlds.
It is an important family consisting 125 genera and 960
species, mainly in regions tropical and subtropical, all
species are sensitive to frost. Most of the plants in this
family are annual vines, but there are also woody lianas.
Thorny shrubs and trees (Dendrosicyos). Many species have
large, yellow or white flowers. The stem are hairy and
pentangular, tendrils are present at 90 degree to the leaf
petioles at nodes, leaves are exstipulates, alternate, simple,
palmately lobed or palmately compound, the flower are
unisexual with male and female flowers on different plants
(dioecious) or on the same plants (monoecious ). The female
flowers have inferior ovary. The fruits are often a kind of
modified berry called pepo8.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant Material and Extraction
The leaves of Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, &
Momordica subangulata were collected from in and around
Satara. The dry leaf powder was successively extracted with
distilled water & Alcohol. These extract was then used for
Screening for phytochemical analysis
The plant extract was subjected to qualitative tests adopting
standard procedure for the identification of the phyto
constituents present in plants by Harborne 9 & Kokate et al.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Phytochemical screening is of paramount importance in
identifying new source of compound having medicinal
significance, to make the best and judicious use of available
natural wealth. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant
chemicals that have protective or disease preventive
properties. Plant produces these chemicals to protect itself,
but recent research demonstrates that many phytochemicals
can protect human against various diseases. A general
screening conducted to characterize chemical composition
of Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula & Momordica
subangulata leaves. Results of phytochemical analysis of
alcoholic and aqueous dried leaf extracts of cucurbitaceae
members are shown in Table 1.
Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2013; 3(1): 49-51 ISSN: 2277-4149
Table 1: Preliminary phytochemical studies of aqueous leaf extracts of Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula and
Sr. No. Test
Tupe SB et al, 2013
The Phytochemical analysis of above three plants showed
the presence of Alkaloids, Tannis, Carbohydrades, Saponin
in aqueous extracts only, Steriods in alcoholic similar kind
of results recorded in Ipomoea obscura by Mungole et al. 11,
Terpenoids, Triterpenoids in aqueous extracts only (Table 1
& 2.). Similar kind of work done by Thite et al. 12 on 7 crude
plant drugs available in market. It is well documented that
the presence of these chemicals is responsible for various
medicinal properties and reported time to time by various
researchers. There are many reports available to support the
role of phytochemicals constituents and their activity against
Lagenaria vulgaris (bottle gourd) have some medicinal
properties such as, the pulp around the seed is emetic &
purgative. A poutice of the crushed leaves has been applied
to the head to treat headaches. The flowers are an antidote to
poison. The stem, bark and the rind of the fruits are diuretic;
the fruit are antilithic, diuretic, empetic and refrigerant.
Extract of the plant have shown antibiotic activity. In many
parts of china 3 gms per day of this species has been as
single treatment for diabetes mellitus14. It is evidence from
result that Lagenaria vulgaris shows the presence of
carbohydrates, saponin and triterpenoid in aqueous extract
only while, these are found absent in alcoholic extract. Only
alcohol soluble steroids found present in this plant.
Luffa acutangula (ridge gourd) another Cucurbitaceous
member shows the medicinal properties as below- the ridge
gourd is endowed with number of medicinal properties &
used in a variety of home remedies, all parts of ridge gourd
plant, fruits , leaves, seeds & even roots are used for their
medicinal property. Ribbed gourd has diuretic property.
Ridge gourd is used as an expectorant & hypoglycaemic.
Ridge gourd is used as bitter tonic. Seeds ridge are used as
laxative & purgative. It is evidence from result that Luffa
acutangula shows similar kind of result that of Lagenaria
vulgaris for triterpenoid and steroids. Aqueous extract of
Momordica subangulata (bitter gourd) shows similar kind of
result that of Luffa acutangula for all phytochemicals
studied. In alcoholic extracts only alkaloids have shown
different trends than that of Luffa acutangula (Table 1)
Bitter gourd is effective in treating skin diseases or skin
infection, eczema & psoriasis. It also helps in keeping the
skin free from blemishes & keeps the skin glowing. Bitter
gourd has blood purifying properties. As a result, the juice is
used in the treatment of blood disorders like blood boils &
itching due to blood poisoning. Ayurvedic doctors also
prescribe bitter gourd juice for digestive problems & to
boost resistance because it contains cellulose which is very
good source of fibre. Thus it is preventing constipation. It
also helps stimulating the secretion of gastric juices. Bitter
gourd contains a chemical called “Charantin” which lower
the urine & blood glucose levels & hence the best home
remedy for diabetes. Fresh juice of bitter gourd is good for
patients suffering from piles15.
Aqueous extracts shows good results regarding presence of
phytoconstituents hence these plants may directly use in
medicine preparation or for the development of novel agents
Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2013; 3(1): 49-51 ISSN: 2277-4149 Download full-text
for various pathological disorders. Further research on the
health benefits of phytochemicals in Cucurbitaceous
members may be warranted.
Ahmedulla M. and Nayar M.P. Red data book of
Indian plants. 1999, Vol-4, Calcutta: Botanical
survey of India.
Balakumar S, Rajan S, Thirunalasundari T, Jeeva S.
Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa
(Rutaceae) leaf extract on dermatophytes. Asian Pac
J Trop Biomed, 2011; 1(3): 169-172.
Mohamed Saleem TK, Azeem AK, Dilip C, Sankar
C, Prasanth NV, Duraisami R. Anti-inflammatory
activity of the leaf extracts of Gendarussa vulgaris
Nees. Asian Pac J Tropical Biomed, 2011; 1(2):147-
Pour BM and Sasidharan S. In vivo toxicity study of
Lantana camara. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011;
Paulraj K, Irudayaraj V, Johnson M, Patric Raja D.
Phytochemical and anti-bacterial activity of
epidermal glands extract of Christella parasitica (L.)
H. Lev. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011; 1(1): 8-11.
Jeeva S, Sawian JT, Lyndem FG, Laloo RC,
Venugopal N. Medicinal plants in Northeast India:
past, present and future scenario. In: Lakshmi
Prabha A, editor. National Seminar on Past, Present
and Future Scenario in Medicinal Plants and
Phytochemistry, Department of Plant Science,
Bharathidasan University, Thiruchirappalli, Tamil
Nadu; 2007: 18-19.
Harborne J.B., Phytochemical methods a guide to
modern techniques of plant analysis 2Edn: chapman &
hall publisher New York. 1973.pp. 85.
Tupe SB et al, 2013
Dhimati, K. Gupta, A. Sharma, DK, Gill NS and
Goyal A. A review on the medicinally important
plant of the family cucurbitaceae. Asian Journal of
clinical Nutrition, 2012; 4: 16-26.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Method, A Guide to
Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edition
Chapman and Hall. New York. 1988; pp.1-198.
10. Kokate CK, Purohit
Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan Publishers, Pune,
India, 2003; pp. 1-624.
11. Mungole AJ, Awati R, Chaturvedi A and Zanwar P.
Preliminary Phytochemical screening of Ipomoea
obscura (L) -A hepatoprotective medicinal plant.
International Journal of PharmTech Research,
2010; 2(4): 2307-2312.
12. Thite SV, Chavan YR, Aparadh VT and Kore BA.
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Some
Medicinal Plants. IJPCBS, 2013; 3(1): 87-90.
13. Suresh SN, Nagarajan N. Preliminary phytochemical
and antimicrobial activity analysis of Begonia
malabarica Lam. J Basic Applied Bio, 2009; 3(1&2):
14. Upaganlawar A & Balaraman R. Protective effect of
isoproterenol induced mycocardial infarction. J.
Pharmacol, 2010; 6; 645-651.
15. Senanayake GVK, Maruyama M, Sakono M,
Fukuda N, Morishita T, Yukizaki C, Kawano M,
Ohta H. The effects of bitter melon (Momordica
charantia) extracts on serum and liver lipid
parameters in hamsters fed cholesterol-free and
cholesterolenriched diets. Journal of Nutritional
Science and Vitaminology, 2004; 50(4): 253-257.
AP, Gohale SB.
(Molina) fruit juice in