Molecular chaperoning function of Ric-8 is to fold nascent heterotrimeric G protein α subunits.
ABSTRACT We have shown that resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric-8) proteins regulate an early step of heterotrimeric G protein α (Gα) subunit biosynthesis. Here, mammalian and plant cell-free translation systems were used to study Ric-8A action during Gα subunit translation and protein folding. Gα translation rates and overall produced protein amounts were equivalent in mock and Ric-8A-immunodepleted rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL). GDP-AlF-bound Gαi, Gαq, Gα13, and Gαs produced in mock-depleted RRL had characteristic resistance to limited trypsinolysis, showing that these G proteins were folded properly. Gαi, Gαq, and Gα13, but not Gαs produced from Ric-8A-depleted RRL were not protected from trypsinization and therefore not folded correctly. Addition of recombinant Ric-8A to the Ric-8A-depleted RRL enhanced GDP-AlF-bound Gα subunit trypsin protection. Dramatic results were obtained in wheat germ extract (WGE) that has no endogenous Ric-8 component. WGE-translated Gαq was gel filtered and found to be an aggregate. Ric-8A supplementation of WGE allowed production of Gαq that gel filtered as a ∼100 kDa Ric-8A:Gαq heterodimer. Addition of GTPγS to Ric-8A-supplemented WGE Gαq translation resulted in dissociation of the Ric-8A:Gαq heterodimer and production of functional Gαq-GTPγS monomer. Excess Gβγ supplementation of WGE did not support functional Gαq production. The molecular chaperoning function of Ric-8 is to participate in the folding of nascent G protein α subunits.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 proteins (Ric-8A and Ric-8B) collectively bind the four classes of heterotrimeric G protein α subunits. Ric-8A and Ric-8B act as non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) toward the Gα subunits that each binds in vitro and seemingly regulate diverse G protein signaling systems in cells. Combined evidence from worm, fly and mammalian systems has shown that Ric-8 proteins are required to maintain proper cellular abundances of G proteins. Ric-8 proteins support G protein levels by serving as molecular chaperones that promote Gα subunit biosynthesis. In this review, the evidence that Ric-8 proteins act as non-receptor GEF activators of G proteins in signal transduction contexts will be weighed against the evidence supporting the molecular chaperoning function of Ric-8 in promoting G protein abundance. I will conclude by suggesting that Ric-8 proteins may act in either capacity in specific contexts. The field awaits additional experimentation to delineate the putative multi-functionality of Ric-8 towards G proteins in cells.Journal of Receptor and Signal Transduction Research 02/2013; DOI:10.3109/10799893.2013.763828 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cytosolic protein Ric-8A acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Gα subunits of the Gi, Gq, and G12/13 classes of heterotrimeric G protein in vitro, and also increases the amounts of these Gα proteins in vivo. The mechanism whereby Ric-8 regulates Gα content has not been fully understood. Here we show that Ric-8A appears to stabilize Gαi2 and Gαq by preventing their ubiquitination. Ric-8A interacts with and stabilizes Gαi2, Gαq, Gα12, but not Gαs, when expressed in COS-7 cells. The protein levels of Gαi2 and Gαq appear to be controlled via the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway, because these Gα subunits undergo polyubiquitination and are stabilized with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The ubiquitination of Gαi2 and Gαq is suppressed by expression of Ric-8A. The suppression appears to require Ric-8A interaction with these Gα proteins, because the C-terminal truncation of Gαq and Gαi2 completely abrogates their interaction with Ric-8A, their stabilization by Ric-8A, and Ric-8A-mediated inhibition of Gα ubiquitination.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2013; 435(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.04.103 · 2.28 Impact Factor
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; 110(34). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1307476110 · 9.81 Impact Factor