Mechanistic link between barrel assembly and the initiation of autotransporter secretion

Genetics and Biochemistry Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 03/2013; 110(10):E938-47. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1219076110
Source: PubMed


Autotransporters are bacterial virulence factors that contain an N-terminal extracellular ("passenger") domain and a C-terminal β barrel ("β") domain that anchors the protein to the outer membrane. The β domain is required for passenger domain secretion, but its exact role in autotransporter biogenesis is unclear. Here we describe insights into the function of the β domain that emerged from an analysis of mutations in the Escherichia coli O157:H7 autotransporter EspP. We found that the G1066A and G1081D mutations slightly distort the structure of the β domain and delay the initiation of passenger domain translocation. Site-specific photocrosslinking experiments revealed that the mutations slow the insertion of the β domain into the outer membrane, but do not delay the binding of the β domain to the factor that mediates the insertion reaction (the Bam complex). Our results demonstrate that the β domain does not simply target the passenger domain to the outer membrane, but promotes translocation when it reaches a specific stage of assembly. Furthermore, our results provide evidence that the Bam complex catalyzes the membrane integration of β barrel proteins in a multistep process that can be perturbed by minor structural defects in client proteins.

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    • "The observation was later attributed to additional accessory factors and interspecies incompatibilities in the outer membrane protein machinery (Robert et al. 2006). Since there is clear evidence for the involvement of the Omp85/BamA machinery in the outer membrane insertion of autotransporters and surface translocation of its passengers, the term " auto " transporter appears to be slightly misleading (Gawarzewski et al. 2013a; Ieva et al. 2011; Pavlova et al. 2013). For clarity reasons, the term autodisplay is still used for surface display of recombinant proteins using autotransporters (Jose et al. 2012; Jose and Meyer 2007), in particular, the AIDA-I autotransporter (Maurer et al. 1997). "
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    • "Given this, it is important to consider the genomic makeup of these accessory systems in conjunction with the gene structure and protein domain organization of ATs for determining the mechanisms of type 5 secretion in each organism. A recent model for the secretion pathway of a classical AT, EspP of E. coli, illustrates the contribution of the BAM complex and several periplasmic chaperones to type 5a secretion (Pavlova et al., 2013). "
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