Article

Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Iowa State University, 4389 Palmer Suite 2356, Ames, IA, 50011, USA, .
Journal of Youth and Adolescence (Impact Factor: 2.72). 02/2013; 42(4). DOI: 10.1007/s10964-013-9923-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Brenda J Lohman, Jan 12, 2014
5 Followers
 · 
157 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract This instrumental study examines the psychometric properties of the Psychological Dating Violence Questionnaire (PDV-Q). The scale was developed with the aim of evaluating subtle and overt psychological abuse among dating couples, and its possible bi-directionality in the implication as victim and as aggressor. A sample group of 670 heterosexual university students (62.8% women), aged between 19 and 25 years old (M = 22; SD = 1.78), took part in the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a satisfactory index of reliability with two different scales: Victimization and Aggression. The external validity was checked with a physical violence measure (modified Conflict Tactic Scale-2). The results indicated a significant but low correlation between psychological and physical scales. The PDV-Q joins dating and intimate violence instruments potentialities and tries to overcome their limitations. It includes a wide range of violent behaviours and it is adapted to specific characteristics from young couples.
    International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijchp.2014.07.002 · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Psychological violence against women in intimate relations is one of the most widespread and hidden ways of limiting their human rights. Nowadays different ideologies, including sexism and feminism, can contribute to (dis)regard this phenomenon. This study focuses on the relationship between ambivalent sexism (in its hostile and benevolent dimensions) and feminism (in the egalitarian ideology dimension) with the identification of psychological violence and the perception of invulnerability to the intimate partner violence in women. The mediator role of the myths about gender-based violence in these relationships is analysed. Participants were 91 women, with heterogeneous socio-demographic characteristics. Results showed benevolent sexism as a risk factor and egalitarian feminism ideology as a protector factor in the process of the perception of psychological violence. The egalitarian feminism ideology also appears as the main predictor of the perception of invulnerability to abuse. This relationship is mediated by the degree of adhesion to the myths about gender-based violence. These findings reinforce the importance of the attitudinal and ideological factors in the perception of gender-based violence.
    Revista de Psicología Social 01/2015; 30(1):31-59. DOI:10.1080/02134748.2014.991519 · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study reports on an independent evaluation of Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships, a multicomponent initiative targeting 11- to 14-year-olds. "Start Strong" was designed to focus on the developmental needs of middle school students and to enhance skills and attitudes consistent with promotion of healthy relationships and reduction of teen dating violence (TDV). The quasi-experimental evaluation design included data collection from four Start Strong schools and four comparison schools. Student surveys were collected at four waves of data at the beginning and the end of grades 7 and 8. Multilevel models used repeated observations nested within students who were, in turn, nested within schools to determine whether participation in Start Strong enhanced healthy skills and relationships and decreased TDV-related attitudes and behaviors. Short-term effects from waves 1 to 2 were statistically significant for increased parent-child communication and boy/girlfriend relationship satisfaction and support and decreased gender stereotypes and attitudes supporting TDV. Findings for acceptance of TDV and gender stereotypes persisted longitudinally. Results are promising and illustrate that a multicomponent, community-based initiative reduced risk factors predictive of TDV. Start Strong is innovative in its focus on early adolescence, which is a critical period in the transition to dating. The results inform future intervention efforts and underscore the need for further study of middle school students. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 02/2015; 56(2 Suppl 2):S14-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.11.003 · 2.75 Impact Factor