Article

Hepatitis B vaccine in celiac disease: Yesterday, today and tomorrow.

Giovanna Vitaliti, Andrea Domenico Praticò, Carla Cimino, Giovanna Di Dio, Elena Lionetti, Mario La Rosa, Salvatore Leonardi, Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.43). 02/2013; 19(6):838-45. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i6.838
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Some studies showed that in celiac patients the immunological response to vaccination is similar to that one found in general population except for vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The non-responsiveness to HBV vaccine has also been described in healthy people, nevertheless the number of non-responders has been demonstrated to be higher in celiac disease (CD) patients than in healthy controls. Several hypothesis explaining this higher rate of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients have been described, such as the genetic hypothesis, according with CD patients carrying the disease-specific haplotype HLA-B8, DR3, and DQ2, show a lower response to HBV vaccine both in clinical expressed CD patients and in healthy people carrying the same haplotype. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that the gluten intake during the vaccination seems to influence the response to the same vaccine. Moreover, it has been demonstrated a possible genetic predisposition to hepatitis B vaccine non-responsiveness likely due to the presence of specific human leukocyte antigen haplotypes and specific single nucleotide polymorphism in genes of cytokine/cytokine receptors and toll like receptors, but the pathogenic mechanism responsible for this low responsiveness still remains unclear. The aim of this review is to focus on the possible pathogenic causes of unresponsiveness to HBV vaccine in CD patients and to propose an alternative vaccination schedule in order to improve the responsiveness to HBV vaccine in this at-risk patients.

0 Followers
 · 
212 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Efficacy and safety of recombinant yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccines for prevention of hepatitis B have been demonstrated unequivocally worldwide as reflected in reduction in HBsAg carrier rates and hepatocellular carcinoma. A new generation of recombinant HBV vaccines expressed in mammalian cells containing Pre-S/S epitopes has been developed in several countries. Such vaccines are useful in special risk groups, i.e., in non-responders to conventional HBV vaccines including older adults, obese people, health care workers, patients with renal failure and on dialysis, transplant patients, patients with HIV as well as travelers on short notice to HBV endemic regions. The future of such vaccines depends on their enhanced immunogenicity and cost profile. Sci-B-Vac™ is a mammalian cell-derived recombinant Pre-S1/Pre-S2/S hepatitis B vaccine which has been shown to be highly immunogenic, inducing faster and higher seroprotection rates against HBV with higher anti-HBs levels at lower HBsAg doses as compared to conventional yeast-derived vaccines. Recently, it has been suggested that such Pre-S/S vaccines against HBV might be efficacious not only for prevention but also for intervention in persistent HBV infection. Data obtained in a recent clinical trial conducted in Vietnam in patients with chronic hepatitis B suggest that repeated monthly i.m. injections of the Sci-B-Vac™ co-administered with daily oral lamivudine treatment can suppress HBV replication and lead to anti-HBs seroconversion in ~50 % of treated patients. Optimization of protocols and efficacy of such an intervention, intended to bypass T cell exhaustion and immune tolerance to HBV remains to be explored.
    Medical Microbiology and Immunology 01/2015; 204. DOI:10.1007/s00430-014-0374-x · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: About 3-5 % of the world's population is chronically infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and is at risk of developing liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The risk of dying prematurely because of chronic HBV infection is higher in younger people. The current strategies to prevent HBV infection involve immunization (active and/or passive) and antiviral chemoprophylaxis. The vaccines available for active immunization, containing hepatitis B surface antigen, are safe and confer long-term immunity in most healthy subjects. Since the vaccination is unsatisfactory in some patients, e.g., those with chronic kidney disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, type I diabetes mellitus, and celiac disease, new strategies of vaccination are required. The neonatal, infant, and adolescent routine program vaccination in about 180 countries has greatly decreased the disease burden. Passive immunization with specific HBV immunoglobulins is recommended after single acute exposure, in infants born to infected mothers, and in HBV-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation combined with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (chemoprophylaxis). Chemoprophylaxis is also indicated in HBV carrier candidates for immunosuppressive treatment and in patients with occult B infection undergoing immunosuppressive therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Since HBV is not eradicable by an immune response or by antiviral drugs developed so far, the only preventive strategy remains global neonatal vaccination in all countries, firstly in HBV-endemic countries.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-induced immune-mediated disorder that has been associated with a defective response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. This unresponsiveness could lead to a world health problem, because non-responder patients could represent a reservoir of HBV-susceptible people that will persist as healthy carriers, leading to the diffusion of the disease. This article presents a literature review of both intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) routes for boosters in celiac patients. We used PubMed database and generated the odds ratio (OR) of the response on the basis of electronic searches of clinical trials. Although our results confirm the positive response of celiac patients to IM vaccination, the ID route seems to be better than the conventional one, since it could provide a saving in cost and a greater immunogenicity.
    Immunotherapy 08/2014; 6(8):945-952. DOI:10.2217/imt.14.64 · 2.44 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
93 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014