The effect of calcium silicate on in vitro physiochemical properties and in vivo osteogenesis, degradability and bioactivity of porous β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics.
ABSTRACT Porous β-tricalcium phosphate(TCP)/calcium silicate(CS) composite bioceramics with different weight proportions were prepared to investigate the in vitro effects of CS on the physiochemical properties of TCP and the in vivo effects of CS on the degradability, osteogenesis and bioactivity of TCP. The physiochemical results showed that the addition of CS to porous TCP resulted in a looser and rougher surface and a lower solid density, compressive strength and Young's modulus and a lower pH value as compared to pure CS without any chemical interaction between the TCP and the CS. The in vivo study showed that the material degradation of porous TCP/CS composite bioceramics was slower than that of pure CS, although the osteogenesis, degradability and bioactivity were significantly increased in the long term. Thereafter, the introduction of CS into porous TCP bioceramics is an effective way to prepare bioactive bone grafting scaffolds for clinical use and to control properties such as in vivo degradability and osteoinduction of TCP.
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ABSTRACT: In this research, sol–gel-derived nanostructured calcium magnesium silicate (merwinite)-based scaffolds were fabricated by water-based freeze casting method. The effect of cooling rate and sintering temperature on pore sizes and mechanical characteristics of the scaffolds was studied. Microstructure and surface morphology of scaffolds were also observed by scanning electron microscopy before and after various time intervals of soaking in simulated body fluid. The results showed that increasing temperature at the constant rate led to increasing the parameters of volume and linear shrinkage, strength (σ), and Young’s modulus (E) but decreasing porosity. This increase was significant for strength and Young’s modulus. In addition, with the increase of rate at the constant temperature, the parameters of volume and linear shrinkage and also porosity decreased whereas strength and Young’s modulus increased significantly. According to the obtained mechanical results, the best mechanical properties were achieved when the scaffold was prepared at cooling rate and sintering temperature of 277.15°K/min and 1623.15°K, respectively (E = 0.048 GPa and σ = 2 MPa). These values were closer to the lower limit of the values for cancellous bone. The acellular in vitro bioactivity revealed that different apatite morphologies were formed on the surfaces for various periods of soaking time when the scaffolds prepared at the freezing temperature of 277.15°K/min and at the two different sintering temperatures. The favorable mechanical behavior of the porous constructs, coupled with the ability of forming apatite particles on the surface of scaffold, indicates the potential of the present freeze casting route for the production of porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.Journal of Materials Science 02/2014; 49(3):1297. DOI:10.1007/s10853-013-7813-8 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A type of specially designed pin model of Mg-Zn alloy was implanted into the full thickness of lesions of New Zealand rabbits' femoral condyles. The recovery progress, outer surface healing and in vivo degradation were characterized by various methods including radiographs, Micro-CT scan with surface rendering, SEM (scanning electron microscope) with EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis) and so on. The in vivo results suggested that a few but not sufficient bridges for holding force were formed between the bone and the implant if there was a preexisting gap between them. The rapid degradation of the implantation in the condyle would result in the appearance of cavities. Morphological evaluation of the specially designed pins indicated that the cusp was the most vulnerable part during degradation. Furthermore, different implantation sites with distinct components and biological functions can lead to different degradation rates of Mg-Zn alloy. The rate of Mg-Zn alloy decreases in the following order: implantation into soft tissue, less trabecular bone, more trabecular bone, and cortical bone. Because of the complexities of in vivo degradation, it is necessary for the design of biomedical Mg-Zn devices to take into consideration the implantation sites used in clinics.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2014; 15(2):2959-70. DOI:10.3390/ijms15022959 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials.04/2014; 37:156–163. DOI:10.1016/j.msec.2014.01.010