Article

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection in fraternal twins: a longitudinal case study examining neurocognitive and neurobehavioral correlates.

a Department of Pediatrics , University of Maryland School of Medicine , Baltimore , Maryland.
Applied neuropsychology. Child 01/2012; 1(1):63-73. DOI: 10.1080/21622965.2012.677605
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most ubiquitous member of the herpes virus family and is the leading cause of congenital (vertical) infection in newborns (Fowler, Stagno, & Pass, 2003 ; Llorente, Steigmeyer, Cooper, Rivers, & Gazley, 2011; Noyola et al., 2000 ; Steigmeyer & Llorente, 2010 ). CMV is related to the group of viruses capable of causing more pernicious infectious diseases, such as chicken pox (Santos de Barona, 1998 ). Although the virus generally remains dormant, individuals whose symptoms are clinically apparent often are dramatically affected. Common symptomatic characteristics of the virus include microcephaly, jaundice, liver-spleen infections, pneumonia, cardiac anomalies, chorioretinitis, vision loss, sensory-neural hearing loss, mental retardation, and mononucleosis (Demmler, 1991 ; Kashden, Frison, Fowler, Pass, & Boll, 1998; Noyola et al., 2000 ; Pass, 2005 ; Santos de Barona). The prognosis of individuals with CMV is highly variable, and the prognosis of individuals with congenital CMV can usually be determined based on the extent of infection at birth. The purpose of this investigation is to present longitudinal results of neuropsychological evaluation of two dizygotic twin sets (one twin of each set is asymptomatic CMV-positive and the other is uninfected) who were reared in the same environment. In addition, the present findings are discussed within the context of emerging murine and other animal analogues of CMV as well as within the extant CMV literature.

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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundInfections with different herpes viruses have been associated with cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients and healthy adults. The aim of this study was to find out whether antibodies to different herpes viruses are prospectively associated with cognitive functioning in a general adolescent population.MethodsThis study was performed in TRAILS, a large prospective general population cohort (N = 1084, 54% female, mean age 16.2 years (SD 0.6)). At age 16, immunoglobulin G antibodies against HSV1, HSV2, CMV and EBV were measured next to high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP). Two years later, immediate memory and executive functioning were assessed using the 15 words task and the self ordered pointing task. Multiple linear regression analysis with bootstrapping was performed to study the association between viral infections and cognitive function, adjusting for gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and cannabis use.ResultsPresence of HSV1 antibodies was associated with memory function ((B = −0.272, 95% CI = −0.556 to −0.016, p = 0.047)), while the association with executive functioning did not reach statistical significance (B = 0.560, 95% CI is −0.053 to 1.184, p = 0.075). The level of HSV1 antibodies was associated with both memory function (B = −0.160, 95% CI = −0.280 to −0.039, p = 0.014) and executive functioning (B = 0.296, 95% CI = 0.011 to 0.578, p = 0.046). Other herpes viruses and hsCRP were not associated with cognitive functioning.ConclusionsBoth presence and level of HSV1 antibodies are prospectively associated with reduced cognitive performance in a large cohort of adolescents.
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