Combined effects of genistein, quercetin, and resveratrol in human and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

Department of Animal & Dairy Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-2771, USA.
Journal of medicinal food (Impact Factor: 1.39). 01/2009; 11(4):773-83. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2008.0077
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The natural compounds genistein (G), quercetin (Q), and resveratrol (R) have been reported to each exhibit anti-adipogenic activities in adipocytes and antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities in several cell types. We studied the combined effects of G, Q, and R on adipogenesis and apoptosis in primary human adipocytes (HAs) and 3T3-L1 murine adipocyte (MAs). Combined treatment with 6.25 microM G, 12.5 microM Q, and 12.5 microM R during the 14-day differentiation period caused an enhanced inhibition of lipid accumulation in maturing HAs that was greater than the responses to individual compounds and to the calculated additive response. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of late adipocyte differentiation, was decreased markedly in HAs treated with the combination of G+Q+R. In addition, combined treatment with 50 microM G, 100 microM Q, and 100 microM R for 3 days decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in early- and mid- phase maturing and lipid-filled mature HAs. In contrast, no compound alone induced apoptosis. Oil Red O stain and Hoechst 33342 stain were performed to confirm the effects on lipid accumulation and apoptosis, respectively. We also determined whether MAs responded to the combination treatment similarly to HAs. As in HAs, G+Q+R treatment decreased lipid accumulation in maturing MAs and increased apoptosis in pre- and lipid-filled mature MAs more than the responses to G, Q, and R when used separately. These results show that lower concentrations of combined treatments with several natural compounds may be useful for treatments for obesity through the suppression of adipogenesis and enhanced adipocyte apoptosis.

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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to find out the effects of peanut sprout extracts on weight controls and protein expressions of transcription factors related to adipocyte differentiation and adipocytokine in rats under high-fat diets. Four week-old Sparague-Dawley (SD) were assigned to 4 groups; normal-fat (NF) diets (7% fat diet), high-fat (HF) diets (20% fat diet), high fat diets with low peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEL) diet (20% fat and 0.025% peanut sprout extract), and high fat diets with high peanut sprout extract (HF + PSEH) diet (20% fat and 0.05% peanut sprout extract). Body weight changes, lipid profiles in adipose tissue, and the mRNA protein expressions, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBP α), leptin, and adiponectin, were determined. After 9 weeks of feeding, the HF + PSEH group had significantly less weight gains than the HF group (P < 0.05). However, the total dietary intakes or food efficiency ratios among groups were not significantly different. The weight of epididymal fat in HF + PSEH group, 3.61 ± 0.5 g, or HF + PSEL group, 3.80 ± 0.7 g, was significantly lower than the HF group, 4.39 ± 0.4g, (P < 0.05). Total lipids and total cholesterol in adipose tissue were significantly decreased in HF + PSEH group compared to those in the HF group, respectively (P < 0.05). PSEH supplementation caused AST and ALT levels to decrease when it compared to HF group, but it was not statistically significant. The protein expression of PPARγ in HF + PSEH group was significantly lower than the HF group (P < 0.05). Comparing with the HF group, the protein expression of adiponectin in HF + PSEH group was significantly increased (P < 0.05). The protein expressions of C/EBP α and leptin in HF + PSEH group were lower than the HF group, but it was not statistical significant. In conclusion, peanut sprout extract has anti-obesity effect by lowering the expressions of PPARγ which regulates the expression of adiponectin.
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    ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RVT) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) individually inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The objective was to examine the possibility of interaction between RVT and EGCG, resulting in enhanced inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preadipocytes were treated with RVT and EGCG individually at 6.25 or (RVT6.25 or RVT25) and 12.5 or (EGCG12.5 or EGCG50) and in combination (RVT6.25 + EGCG12.5 and RVT25 + EGCG50). RVT25 as an individual compound decreased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by 24%, and RVT25 + EGCG50 further decreased lipid accumulation by 77%. In addition, exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to RVT6.25 + EGCG12.5 and RVT25 + EGCG50 combinations resulted in an enhanced increase of adiponectin release and inhibition of leptin release. Quantitative analysis revealed that the combination of tested materials (RVT6.25 + EGCG12.5 and RVT25 + EGCG50) decreased the expression levels of C/EBP, PPAR, and aP2. These results indicate that the combined treatments with RVT and EGCG produce synergistic effects on inhibiting adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The overall results suggested that the combining RVT and EGCG might be more capable of exerting antiobesity effects than each individual compound by itself.
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