Observation of H2 aggregation onto a doubly charged anion in a temperature-controlled ion trap.
ABSTRACT Hydrogen is the second most difficult gas to be condensed due to its weak intermolecular interactions. Here we report observation of H(2) aggregation onto a doubly charged anion, (-)O(2)C(CH(2))(12)CO(2)(-)(DC(2-)). Weakly bound DC(2-)(H(2))(n) clusters were formed in a temperature-controlled ion trap and studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The onset of clustering was observed at 30 K, whereas extensive condensation was observed at 12 K with n up to 12. Photoelectron spectra were obtained for DC(2-)(H(2))(n) (n = 0-6) at 193 and 266 nm. The spectra of DC(2-)(H(2))(n) were observed to be identical to that of the bare DC(2-) dianion except a slight blue shift, indicating the weak interactions between H(2) and the parent dianion. The blue shift on average amounts to approximately 34 meV (3.3 kJ/mol) per H(2), which represents the lower limit of the H(2) binding energy to DC(2-).
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ABSTRACT: We present infrared photodissociation spectra of two protonated peptides that are cooled in a ~10 K quadrupole ion trap and "tagged" with weakly bound H(2) molecules. Spectra are recorded over the range of 600-4300 cm(-1) using a table-top laser source, and are shown to result from one-photon absorption events. This arrangement is demonstrated to recover sharp (Δν ~6 cm(-1)) transitions throughout the fingerprint region, despite the very high density of vibrational states in this energy range. The fundamentals associated with all of the signature N-H and C=O stretching bands are completely resolved. To address the site-specificity of the C=O stretches near 1800 cm(-1), we incorporated one (13)C into the tripeptide. The labeling affects only one line in the complex spectrum, indicating that each C=O oscillator contributes a single distinct band, effectively "reporting" its local chemical environment. For both peptides, analysis of the resulting band patterns indicates that only one isomeric form is generated upon cooling the ions initially at room temperature into the H(2) tagging regime.Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2011; 133(16):6440-8. · 10.68 Impact Factor
Conference Proceeding: Effect of fading correlation on the outage probability of cellular mobile radio systems[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents new exact closed-form expressions for the outage probability of cellular systems (without diversity reception) in which the desired user follows a Rician distribution whereas the interferers are subject to correlated Rayleigh fading. It then capitalizes on a numerical technique by D. Raphaeli (see IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol.42, p.1002-7, 1996) dealing with the accurate evaluation of the cumulative distribution function of quadratic forms in complex Gaussian random variables to solve for the outage probability in the more general case of arbitrary fading statistics, average fading powers, diversity branches correlation, and/or correlation between the interferers. In some scenarios, the numerical approach reduces to finite-sum closed-form expressionsVehicular Technology Conference, 2001. VTC 2001 Fall. IEEE VTS 54th; 02/2001
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Observation of H
Charged Anion in a Temperature-Controlled Ion Trap
Xue-Bin Wang, Xiao-Peng Xing, and Lai-Sheng Wang
J. Phys. Chem. A, 2008, 112 (51), 13271-13274• DOI: 10.1021/jp808769m • Publication Date (Web): 13 November 2008
Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on February 22, 2009
2 Aggregation onto a Doubly
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Observation of H2Aggregation onto a Doubly Charged Anion in a Temperature-Controlled
Xue-Bin Wang, Xiao-Peng Xing, and Lai-Sheng Wang*
Department of Physics, Washington State UniVersity, 2710 UniVersity DriVe, Richland, Washington 99354, and
Chemical & Materials Sciences DiVision, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, MS K8-88, P.O. Box 999,
Richland, Washington 99352
ReceiVed: October 3, 2008; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 30, 2008
Hydrogen is the second most difficult gas to be condensed due to its weak intermolecular interactions. Here
we report observation of H2aggregation onto a doubly charged anion,-O2C(CH2)12CO2-(DC2-). Weakly
bound DC2-(H2)nclusters were formed in a temperature-controlled ion trap and studied using photoelectron
spectroscopy. The onset of clustering was observed at 30 K, whereas extensive condensation was observed
at 12 K with n up to 12. Photoelectron spectra were obtained for DC2-(H2)n(n ) 0-6) at 193 and 266 nm.
The spectra of DC2-(H2)nwere observed to be identical to that of the bare DC2-dianion except a slight blue
shift, indicating the weak interactions between H2and the parent dianion. The blue shift on average amounts
to ∼34 meV (3.3 kJ/mol) per H2, which represents the lower limit of the H2binding energy to DC2-.
Molecular hydrogen is an appealing alternative to replace the
diminishing fossil fuel as a clean and environmentally friendly
energy source. To eventually achieve this goal, one crucial issue
is to find economic and efficient hydrogen storage media.1-3
Thus, the study of how molecular hydrogen interacts with a
host material has been a recent topic of intensive scientific
interests because of the relevance to searching and designing
hydrogen storage materials.4-10Most studies have focused on
H2 uptake by bulk storage materials, where heterogeneous
phases and multiple components of the medium often complicate
interpretation and prevent a microscopic understanding of key
controlling factors. Very recently, theoretical investigations have
been performed on H2storage capability of model systems to
sort out key factors (van der Waals forces, electrostatic effects,
and orbital interactions) that may dictate and influence the H2
Studies of gas phase clusters containing H2 can provide
microscopic insight into interactions of H2with various sub-
strates and fundamental information relevant to the search of
hydrogen storage materials. Numerous gas phase studies of
atomic and small metal cluster ions with H2 have been
reported.15-26However, there have been few studies about H2
clustering on complex ions, mainly because of the difficulties
to create such H2solvated clusters, which requires extremely
cold environments. Recent advances in ion trap technology have
made it possible to produce cold ions at very low temperatures27,28
and to allow spectroscopic studies of gaseous ions under well-
controlled temperatures.29-32In fact, the cold ion trap technique
was first demonstrated by generating protonated hydrogen cluster
Here we report observation of H2aggregation onto a doubly
charged dicarboxylate dianion,-O2C(CH2)12CO2-(DC2-), in a
temperature-controlled Paul trap containing a low pressure H2
background gas. The threshold temperature for H2nucleation
was observed to be ∼30 K and extensive aggregation was
observed at 12 K, forming DC2-(H2)nclusters with n up to12.
Photoelectron spectra of DC2-(H2)n(n ) 1-6) display identical
spectral features to that of the parent DC2-with only a very
slight increase of the electron binding energies with n (on
average of ∼34 meV per H2molecule) due to the weak van der
Waals and electrostatic interactions. Because organic carboxy-
lates are common components in the metal-organic framework
hydrogen storage materials,8-10the current work may be
pertinent to understanding the intermolecular interactions of H2
in these promising hydrogen-storage materials.
The experiment was performed with a low-temperature
apparatus, which couples an electrospray ionization (ESI) source
and a temperature-controlled Paul trap with a magnetic-bottle
photoelectron analyzer. Details of this apparatus have been
recently published33and only a brief account is given here. The
DC2-anions were produced using ESI from a 1 mM solution,
prepared by desolving the corresponding acid in water along
with NaOH and then diluting the neutralized solution by
methanol to achieve a methanol/water ratio of 3/1. Anions from
the ESI source were guided by a RF-only quadrupole into a
quadrupole mass filter operated in the RF-only mode. Following
the mass filter, the anions were directed into the temperature-
controlled Paul trap via a 90° ion bender and an octopole ion-
guide. Ions were collisionally cooled by a 0.1-1 mTorr helium
background gas containing 20% H2 (∼0.02-0.2 mTorr H2
partial pressure) before being pulsed out at a 10 Hz repetition
rate into the extraction zone of a time-of-flight (TOF) mass
spectrometer. The lowest ion trap temperature achieved was 12
* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: ls.wang@
10.1021/jp808769m CCC: $40.75
2008 American Chemical Society
Published on Web 11/13/2008
2008, 112, 13271–13274
K, measured by a silicon diode, which was attached to the
nearest electrically isolated adaptor made of oxygen-free high
purity copper.33The RF amplitude of the trap was minimized
to avoid RF heating.
During the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) experiment, the
DC2-anions were selected and decelerated before being
photodetached in the interaction zone of the magnetic-bottle PES
analyzer. Two detachment photon energies were used in the
current experiment: 193 nm (6.424 eV) from an excimer laser
and 266 nm (4.661 eV) from a Nd:YAG laser. The lasers were
operated at a 20 Hz repetition rate with the ion beam off at
alternating laser shots for background subtraction. Photoelectrons
were collected at nearly 100% efficiency by the magnetic-bottle
and analyzed in a 5.2 m long electron flight tube. Time-of-flight
photoelectron spectra were collected and converted to kinetic
energy spectra, calibrated by the known spectra of I-and ClO2-.
The electron binding energy spectra were obtained by subtract-
ing the kinetic energy spectra from the respective detachment
photon energies. The energy resolution (∆E/E) of the magnetic-
bottle electron analyzer was about 2%, i.e., ∼20 meV for 1 eV
Results and Discussion
Time-of-Flight Mass Spectra. As shown from our previous
studies on other dicarboxylate dianions,32,34a strong mass signal
corresponding to the DC2-dianion was easily observed from
our ESI source. As the temperature of the ion trap was lowered,
we observed additional peaks in the time-of-flight mass spectra,
which became more extensive as temperature was lowered
further. Figure 1 displays a few “snapshots” of the mass spectra
from 30 to 12 K. The spacing of these extra peaks corresponds
to a mass-to-charge ratio of 1, i.e., a mass separation of 2,
considering the doubly charged nature of DC2-. This observation
suggested that the H2molecules used as background gas for
collisional cooling in the ion trap began condensing onto the
cold doubly charged parent DC2-to form DC2-(H2)nclusters.
The onset of the H2condensation was around 30 K. At the
lowest trapping temperature of 12 K, extensive clustering was
observed with n up to 12 and essentially no bare DC2-was left
in the ion trap, as shown in Figure 1 (blue).
Photoelectron Spectroscopy. To confirm the identities of
these newly formed species and probe the strength of the
intermolecular interactions, we obtained the photoelectron
spectra of DC2-(H2)nfor n ) 0-6 at 193 and 266 nm, as shown
in Figure 2. We observed that the spectra of DC2-(H2)nare
identical to those of the parent DC2-except a small shift to
higher binding energies, confirming that these newly formed
species at low temperatures are indeed due to weakly bound
H2clusters. The photoelectron spectra of DC2-consist of two
spectral bands due to detachment from the O lone-pair electrons
from the terminal -CO2-groups, as shown from our previous
studies on other similar dicarboxylate dianions.32,34The current
low-temperature spectra were better resolved in comparison to
our previous room temperature spectra due to the vibrational
cooling. The sharper spectra yielded better defined detachment
threshold, from which the adiabatic detachment energy (ADE)
was estimated, as given in Table 1 and plotted in Figure 3. The
magnitude of the spectral shift induced by each H2molecule,
defined as ∆ADE(n) ) ADE(n) - ADE(n - 1), is also given
in Table 1. The ADE increases very slightly with the number
of H2molecules, ranging from 0.012 to 0.053 eV, due to the
very weak van der Waals or electrostatic interactions between
CO2-(H2)n. Note the onset of H2clustering at 30 K and the increasing
aggregation of H2with decreasing temperatures. The weak peaks at
71.4 and 73.2 µs in the 30 K spectrum were due to unidentified
Temperature-dependent mass spectra of
Figure 2. Low temperature photoelectron spectra of-O2C(CH2)12-
CO2-(H2)n(n ) 0-6) at 193 nm (left) and 266 nm (right).
TABLE 1: Adiabatic Detachment Energies (ADE) and
Incremental Stabilization Energies, ∆ADE(n) ) ADE (n) -
ADE(n - 1) of-O2C(CH2)12CO2-(H2)n(n ) 0-6)a
aAll energies are in eV. Numbers in parentheses represent
experimental uncertainties in the last digits.
structures were not resolved, the ADE was estimated from the 266
nm spectra by drawing a straight line at the leading edge of the
threshold spectral band and adding the instrumental resolution to the
intersection with the binding energy axis. Previous studies indicated
an accuracy of 0.1 eV using this procedure as long as the 0-0
transition was not negligible.29 c∆ADE carries a smaller uncertainty
because the spectral shift can be measured more accurately.
J. Phys. Chem. A, Vol. 112, No. 51, 2008
The ∆ADE(n) values shown in Table 1 are not monotonic
as a function of n: the first H2gives only a marginal stabilization
effect of 12 meV, while the second and third H2molecules each
yield substantially larger effects of ∼50 meV. The increase in
ADE from further addition of H2molecules is 20, 39, and 29
meV for n ) 4, 5, and 6, respectively (Table 1). On average,
each H2 molecule induces an increase of ∼34 meV to the
electron binding energy of DC2-. ∆ADE(n) is related to the
incremental H2binding energies (BE) to the DC2-dianion and
BE[DC-(H2)n]. Because BE[DC-(H2)n> 0, the average ∆ADE
of ∼34 meV (3.3 kJ/mol) can be viewed as the lower limit of
the H2binding energy to DC2-. In comparison, we have shown
previously that solvation of a dicarboxylate dianion by H2O
induces an increase in ADE, ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 eV per
H2O molecule,32,34-37i.e., the H-bonding interaction of H2O with
the dicarboxylate is 1 order of magnitude stronger than the weak
interactions by H2.
The DC2-dianion is quite long with a separation of ∼15 Å
between the two terminal -CO2-groups. It is expected to adopt
a linear configuration due to the strong intramolecular Coulomb
repulsion (∼1 eV), similar to other shorter dicarboxylate
dianions that we studied before.32,34We have investigated
extensively the solvation of dicarboxylate dianions by H2O
previously and observed that water molecules solvate the two
hydrophilic -CO2-groups alternately at both ends while
avoiding the hydrophobic -(CH2)n- backbones.32,35-37A strong
odd-even effect was observed in the ∆ADE trend because an
odd solvent number breaks the equivalence of the two terminal
carboxylate groups and only an even number of solvent can
solvate both -CO2-groups evenly. Thus, an even number of
solvent molecules produces a much larger stabilization, which
can be roughly viewed as the stabilization of one solvent to
one -CO2-group. Because of the stronger electrostatic interac-
tions, we expected that H2should interact with the two terminal
-CO2-groups in a similar manner. Indeed, we observed that
the second H2produces a much larger stabilization (53 meV)
compared to the first H2(12 meV), suggesting that the first two
H2molecules are bounded to the two terminal -CO2-groups
separately. We expected that the additional H2molecules should
also bound to the -CO2-groups in a similar alternating fashion.
However, the third H2produces a stabilization similar to the
second H2, breaking the anticipated odd-even pattern. This
observation implies that the third H2is not just interacting with
one -CO2-at one end. The observed trend of ∆ADE(n)
suggests that for n g 3 the additional H2molecules probably
begin to interact with the aliphatic backbone via weak van der
Waals forces while simultaneously interacting with both terminal
charges via charge dipole/quadruple interactions.
In conclusion, we report the observation of aggregation of
H2molecules onto a long-chain doubly charged anion inside a
temperature-controlled Paul trap. Photoelectron spectra were
obtained for the resulting DC2-(H2)n clusters, revealing the
weakly bound nature between H2and DC2-. The trend of the
spectral shift suggests that the first two H2 solvate the two
terminal -CO2-groups separately while for n g 3 the additional
H2starts to solvate the aliphatic backbone. The observation of
the weakly bound H2clusters indicates that cold anions can be
both produced in and extracted from a Paul trap. The current
study shows that H2 interactions with many other complex
anions can be investigated using the temperature-controlled Paul
trap. In addition, the weakly bound clusters provide new
opportunities to allow action spectroscopy to be performed on
ultracold complex ions.
Acknowledgment. This work was supported by the U.S.
Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences,
Chemical Sciences Division and was performed at the EMSL,
a national scientific user facility sponsored by DOE’s Office of
Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific
Northwest National Laboratory, which is operated for DOE by
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