UNC93B1 mediates differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs

Division of Immunology and Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology , University of California, Berkeley , Berkeley , United States.
eLife Sciences (Impact Factor: 8.52). 02/2013; 2:e00291. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.00291
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT eLife digest
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are proteins that are responsible for recognizing specific molecules associated with invading pathogens, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Upon detecting these signals, TLRs activate the body's immune response, which fights the infection.
A subset of TLRs recognizes nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA, enabling the immune system to respond to foreign material from a diverse range of bacteria and viruses. However, some of the body's own DNA and RNA is also found outside cells (e.g., in the bloodstream) and TLRs must be able to discriminate between these nucleic acids and those belonging to pathogens, because failure to tell the difference between the two could result in autoimmune disease. To reduce this risk, TLRs are sequestered inside the cell within membrane-bound compartments known as endosomes.
UNC93B1 is a transmembrane protein that is known to control the movement of TLRs from the endoplasmic reticulum—where TLRs are assembled—to endosomes. However, the exact mechanisms by which this protein controls TLR trafficking were unclear. Now Lee et al. reveal that it directly controls the packaging of at least six TLRs at the endoplasmic reticulum: it helps to load these TLRs into vesicles, which are in turn processed by the Golgi apparatus—the organelle wherein proteins are sorted and packaged en route to their final destinations. Surprisingly, UNC93B1 remains associated with the TLRs even after Golgi processing.
Lee et al. also reveal that specific endosomal TLRs are subject to distinct post-Golgi trafficking mechanisms. In order for TLR9 to be delivered to the endosome, UNC93B1 must recruit an adaptor protein called AP-2, whereas other TLRs appear to require different actions by UNC93B1. By defining the mechanisms that underlie the differential trafficking of endosomal TLRs, Lee et al. suggest that we may learn how to manipulate distinct aspects of TLR activation, and also gain insights into the causes of certain autoimmune diseases.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are indispensable components of the innate immune system, which recognise conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and induce a series of defensive immune responses to protect the host. Biosynthesis, localization and activation of TLRs are dependent on TLR accessory proteins. In this study, we identified the accessory protein, UNC93B1 from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome shotgun (WGS) contigs aided by the conserved gene synteny of genes flanking UNC93B1 in fish, birds and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that salmon UNC93B1 grouped with other vertebrate UNC93B1 molecules, and had highest amino acid identity and similarity to zebrafish UNC93B1. The salmon UNC93B1 gene organisation was also similar in structure to mammalian UNC93B1. Our gene expression studies revealed that salmon UNC93B1 was more highly expressed in spleen, liver and gill tissues but was expressed at a lower level in head kidney tissue in post-smolts relative to parr. Moreover, salmon UNC93B1 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated in vivo in spleen tissue from polyI:C treated salmon and in vitro in polyI:C or IFNγ stimulated Salmon Head Kidney-1 (SHK-1) cells. Initial studies into the functional role of salmon UNC93B1 in fish TLR signalling found that both wild type salmon UNC93B1 and a molecule with a site-directed mutation (H424R) co-immunoprecipitated with salmon TLR19, TLR20a and TLR20d. Overall, these data illustrate the potential importance of UNC93B1 as an accessory protein in fish TLR signalling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Developmental & Comparative Immunology 01/2015; 50(1). DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2014.12.014 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MyD88 is the canonical adaptor for inflammatory signaling pathways downstream of members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor families. MyD88 links IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) or TLR family members to IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK) family kinases via homotypic protein-protein interaction. Activation of IRAK family kinases leads to a variety of functional outputs, including the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB), mitogen-activated protein kinases, and activator protein 1, making MyD88 a central node of inflammatory pathways. As more details of MyD88-dependent signaling have been elucidated, it has become clear that the functions of this critical signaling component can be influenced by multiple interaction partners in distinct subcellular compartments. In this review, we will focus on recent developments in the understanding of the assembly of MyD88 signaling complexes and the mechanisms leading to the diversification of MyD88-based signaling.
    11/2014; 6:97. DOI:10.12703/P6-97
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Innate immune recognition of the major human-specific Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes is not understood. Here we show that mice employ Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and TLR13-mediated recognition of S. pyogenes. These TLR pathways are non-redundant in the in vivo context of animal infection, but are largely redundant in vitro, as only inactivation of both of them abolishes inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages and dendritic cells infected with S. pyogenes. Mechanistically, S. pyogenes is initially recognized in a phagocytosis-independent manner by TLR2 and subsequently by TLR13 upon internalization. We show that the TLR13 response is specifically triggered by S. pyogenes rRNA and that Tlr13-/- cells respond to S. pyogenes infection solely by engagement of TLR2. TLR13 is absent from humans and, remarkably, we find no equivalent route for S. pyogenes RNA recognition in human macrophages. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TLR13 occurs in all kingdoms but only in few mammals, including mice and rats, which are naturally resistant against S. pyogenes. Our study establishes that the dissimilar expression of TLR13 in mice and humans has functional consequences for recognition of S. pyogenes in these organisms.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119727. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119727 · 3.53 Impact Factor


Available from