Metabolic alterations in pregnant women: Gestational diabetes

Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM (Impact Factor: 1). 10/2012; 25(9-10):835-42. DOI: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0175
Source: PubMed


Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and controversy are old friends. The impact of GDM on maternal and fetal health has been increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, universal consensus on the diagnostic methods and thresholds has long been lacking. Published guidelines from major societies differ significantly from one another, with recommendations ranging from aggressive screening to no routine screening at all. As a result, real-world practice is equally varied. This article recaps the latest evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and classification of GDM. It reviews the current evidence base for intensive multidisciplinary treatment of GDM and provides recommendations for postpartum management to delay and/or prevent progression to type 2 diabetes.

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Available from: Rúben Fernandes, Mar 25, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a hyperglycemic condition caused by increased insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion during pregnancy. It is known to be temporary, but it can cause perinatal complications in the mother and baby. Additionally, it may progress to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, we evaluated the risk factors for complications and progression to T2DM in patients with GDM.
    01/2014; 15(2):116. DOI:10.4093/jkd.2014.15.2.116
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the effect of the interaction between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal body mass index (BMI) on the individual neonatal growth parameters. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: A tertiary maternity service in Sydney, Australia, between 2005 and 2009. Population: A cohort of 8859 women. Methods: Generalized linear models. Main outcome measures: Neonatal growth parameters, represented by z-scores for infant birth weight (BW), birth length (BL), and head circumference (HC) in GDM and non-GDM groups. Results: Only GDM alone had an independent and positive effect on BL (p = 0.02) but not on BW or HC. In addition, in pregnancies complicated with GDM, the association between maternal weight and BW was significantly stronger (p < 0.001). In combination, GDM and maternal BMI significantly affected z-score differences between BW and BL (p < 0.001), in that underweight mothers had babies that were lighter relative to their length and inversely obese mothers had babies that were heavier relative to their length. Conclusion: GDM independently influences BL and increases the association between maternal BMI and BW. In accordance with the hypothesis of the fetal origins of health and disease, the pronounced effects of GDM on fetal growth patterns demonstrated in this study are likely to influence long-term health outcomes in children.
    Frontiers in Pediatrics 10/2014; 2:112. DOI:10.3389/fped.2014.00112
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between first trimester maternal serum levels of the TTR-RBP4-ROH complex components and the later insurgence of an altered glucose metabolism during pregnancy. Retrospective case control study including 96 patients between the 12th and 14th week of gestation, 32 that developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), respectively, 21 non-insulin-treated (dGDM) and 11 insulin-treated (iGDM), 20 large for gestational age fetuses (LGA) without GDM and 44 patients with normal outcome as control. Serum concentrations of RBP4 and TTR were assessed by ELISA; serum concentration of ROH by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC). The molecular heterogeneity of TTR and RBP4 was analyzed after immunoprecipitation by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). iGDM patients were characterized by reduced TTR, RBP4 and ROH compared to controls (respectively, iGDM vs. controls, mean±SD: TTR 3.96±0.89 μmol/L vs. 4.68±1.21 μmol/L, RBP4 1.13±0.25 μmol/L vs. 1.33±0.38 μmol/L and ROH 1.33±0.17 μmol/L vs. 1.62±0.29 μmol/L, p<0.05). TTR containing Gly10 in place of Cys10 was lower in the iGDM group (p<0.05) compared to controls. In the final logistic regression model ROH significantly predicted the diagnosis of iGDM (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98, p<0.05). First trimester maternal serum ROH, RBP4 and TTR represent potential biomarkers associated with the development of iGDM.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 03/2015; DOI:10.1515/cclm-2014-0929 · 2.71 Impact Factor

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