Protective effect of 20-HETE analogues in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury.
ABSTRACT While it is known that the arachidonic acid metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemic injury in the heart and brain, its role in kidney injury is unclear. Here we determined the effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury of the 20-HETE analogues, 20-hydroxyeicosa-5(Z), 14(Z)-dienoic acid (5,14-20-HEDE), and N-[20-hydroxyeicosa-5(Z),14(Z)-dienoyl]glycine (5,14-20-HEDGE), and of the inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis N-hydroxy-N-(4-butyl-2 methylphenyl) formamidine (HET0016). Using Sprague-Dawley rats we found that while treatment with the inhibitor exacerbated renal injury, infusion of both 5,14-20-HEDE and 5,14-20-HEDGE significantly attenuated injury when compared to vehicle or inhibitor-treated rats. Medullary blood flow, measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, decreased to half of the baseline one hour after reperfusion in the control rats, but 5,14-20-HEDGE completely prevented this. Treatment of control animals with 5,14-20-HEDGE increased urine output and sodium excretion without altering their mean arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate. Our results suggest that 20-HETE analogues protect the kidney from ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting renal tubular sodium transport and preventing the post-ischemic fall in medullary blood flow. Analogues of 20-HETE may be useful in the treatment of acute ischemic kidney injury.
Article: Cell death induced by acute renal injury: a perspective on the contributions of apoptosis and necrosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In humans and experimental models of renal ischemia, tubular cells in various nephron segments undergo necrotic and/or apoptotic cell death. Various factors, including nucleotide depletion, electrolyte imbalance, reactive oxygen species, endonucleases, disruption of mitochondrial integrity, and activation of various components of the apoptotic machinery, have been implicated in renal cell vulnerability. Several approaches to limit the injury and augment the regeneration process, including nucleotide repletion, administration of growth factors, reactive oxygen species scavengers, and inhibition of inducers and executioners of cell death, proved to be effective in animal models. Nevertheless, an effective approach to limit or prevent ischemic renal injury in humans remains elusive, primarily because of an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of cellular injury. Elucidation of cell death pathways in animal models in the setting of renal injury and extrapolation of the findings to humans will aid in the design of potential therapeutic strategies. This review evaluates our understanding of the molecular signaling events in apoptotic and necrotic cell death and the contribution of various molecular components of these pathways to renal injury.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 05/2003; 284(4):F608-27. · 3.68 Impact Factor
Article: Cytochrome P450 and arachidonic acid metabolites: role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury revisited.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and other organs results in the accumulation of unesterified arachidonic acid (AA) via the action of membrane-bound phospholipases, primarily phospholipase A2. AA can be metabolized by the classical cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways to well-characterized metabolites and their respective cardioprotective end products such as prostacyclin (PGI2) and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE). However, it has only been recently recognized that another less well-characterized pathway of AA metabolism, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathway, may have important cardiovascular effects. Several lines of data support the possibility that certain CYP metabolites resulting from the hydroxylation of AA such as 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) are potent vasoconstrictors and may produce detrimental effects in the heart during ischemia and pro-inflammatory effects during reperfusion. On the other hand, a group of regioisomers resulting from the epoxidation of AA, including 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs), have been shown to reduce ischemic and/or reperfusion injury in the heart and vasculature. This review will discuss the detrimental and beneficial actions, including the potential cellular mechanisms responsible as a result of stimulating or inhibiting the two arms of this novel CYP pathway. The therapeutic potential of increasing EET concentrations and/or reducing 20-HETE concentrations will also be addressed.Cardiovascular Research 11/2005; 68(1):18-25. · 6.06 Impact Factor
Article: Hypaxial muscle development.Results and problems in cell differentiation 02/2002; 38:127-41.