Article

Pharmaceutical Overdose Deaths, United States, 2010

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 02/2013; 309(7):657-9. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.272
Source: PubMed
1 Follower
 · 
125 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Opioid analgesic prescriptions are driving trends in drug overdoses, but little is known about prescribing patterns among medical specialties. We conducted this study to examine the opioid-prescribing patterns of the medical specialties over time. IMS Health's National Prescription Audit (NPA) estimated the annual counts of pharmaceutical prescriptions dispensed in the U.S. during 2007-2012. We grouped NPA prescriber specialty data by practice type for ease of analysis, and measured the distribution of total prescriptions and opioid prescriptions by specialty. We calculated the percentage of all prescriptions dispensed that were opioids, and evaluated changes in that rate by specialty during 2007-2012. The analysis was conducted in 2013. In 2012, U.S. pharmacies and long-term care facilities dispensed 4.2 billion prescriptions, 289 million (6.8%) of which were opioids. Primary care specialties accounted for nearly half of all dispensed opioid prescriptions. The rate of opioid prescribing was highest for specialists in pain medicine (48.6%); surgery (36.5%); and physical medicine/rehabilitation (35.5%). The rate of opioid prescribing rose during 2007-2010 but leveled thereafter as most specialties reduced opioid use. The greatest percentage increase in opioid-prescribing rates during 2007-2012 occurred among physical medicine/rehabilitation specialists (+12.0%). The largest percentage drops in opioid-prescribing rates occurred in emergency medicine (-8.9%) and dentistry (-5.7%). The data indicate diverging trends in opioid prescribing among medical specialties in the U.S. during 2007-2012. Engaging the medical specialties individually is critical for continued improvement in the safe and effective treatment of pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    American journal of preventive medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.020 · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ALO-02 capsules, intended to deter abuse, contain pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl), an opioid agonist, surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, an opioid antagonist. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of administration of ALO-02 with 20 or 40 % ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of oxycodone. This was an open-label, single-dose, randomized, three-way crossover study in 18 healthy fasting adults administered ALO-02 20/2.4 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) with water, 20 % ethanol, or 40 % ethanol, each under naltrexone block. Median time to maximum concentration was 12 h postdose when ALO-02 was administered with water or 20 % ethanol and decreased to 8 h postdose with 40 % ethanol. Geometric mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC∞) and maximum concentration (C max) values were similar for ALO-02 administered with water or 20 % ethanol, and increased by about 13 and 37 %, respectively, for ALO-02 administered with 40 % ethanol versus water. The 90 % confidence intervals (CIs) for AUC∞ and C max ratios of ALO-02 with 20 % ethanol versus water were within 80-125 %; upper 90 % CIs were >125 % for ALO-02 with 40 % ethanol versus water. The most common adverse events were mild-to-moderate vomiting, nausea, headache, and somnolence. Incidence of adverse events increased for ALO-02 given with ethanol versus water. Oxycodone exposures (C max) were unaffected when ALO-02 was administered with 20 % ethanol but C max increased by 37 % with 40 % ethanol versus water. ALO-02 administered with ethanol under naltrexone block was generally well tolerated.
    Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40261-015-0278-6 · 1.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent state-based studies have shown an increased risk of opioid overdose death in Medicaid populations. To explore one side of risk, this study examines indicators of potential opioid inappropriate use or prescribing among Medicaid enrollees. We examined claims from enrollees aged 18-64 years in the 2010 Truven Health MarketScan® Multi-State Medicaid database, which consisted of weighted and nationally representative data from 12 states. Pharmaceutical claims were used to identify enrollees (n=359,368) with opioid prescriptions. Indicators of potential inappropriate use or prescribing included overlapping opioid prescriptions, overlapping opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions, long acting/extended release opioids for acute pain, and high daily doses. In 2010, Medicaid enrollees with opioid prescriptions obtained an average 6.3 opioid prescriptions, and 40% had at least one indicator of potential inappropriate use or prescribing. These indicators have been linked to opioid-related adverse health outcomes, and methods exist to detect and deter inappropriate use and prescribing of opioids.
    Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 01/2015; 26(1):182-98. DOI:10.1353/hpu.2015.0009 · 1.10 Impact Factor