Pharmaceutical Overdose Deaths, United States, 2010

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 30.39). 02/2013; 309(7):657-9. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2013.272
Source: PubMed


Available from: Christopher Jones, Dec 02, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency departments (EDs) may be high-yield venues to address opioid deaths with education on both overdose prevention and appropriate actions in a witnessed overdose. In addition, the ED has the potential to equip patients with nasal naloxone kits as part of this effort. We evaluated the feasibility of an ED-based overdose prevention program and described the overdose risk knowledge, opioid use, overdoses, and overdose responses among participants who received overdose education and naloxone rescue kits (OEN) and participants who received overdose education only (OE). Program participants were surveyed by telephone after their ED visit about their substance use, overdose risk knowledge, history of witnessed and personal overdoses, and actions in a witnessed overdose including use of naloxone. A total of 415 ED patients received OE or OEN between January 1, 2011 and February 28, 2012. Among those, 51 (12%) completed the survey; 37 (73%) of those received a naloxone kit, and 14 (27%) received OE only. Past 30-day opioid use was reported by 35% OEN and 36% OE, and an overdose was reported by 19% OEN and 29% OE. Among 53% (27/51) of participants who witnessed another individual experiencing an overdose, 95% OEN and 88% OE stayed with victim, 74% OEN and 38% OE called 911, 26% OEN and 25% OE performed rescue breathing, and 32% OEN (n=6) used a naloxone kit to reverse the overdose. We did not detect statistically significant differences between OEN and OE-only groups in opioid use, overdose or response to a witnessed overdose. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based opioid overdose prevention education and naloxone distribution to trained laypersons, patients and their social network. The program reached a high-risk population that commonly witnessed overdoses and that called for help and used naloxone, when available, to rescue people. While the study was retrospective with a low response rate, it provides preliminary data for larger, prospective studies of ED-based overdose prevention programs.
    The western journal of emergency medicine 05/2015; 16(3):381-284. DOI:10.5811/westjem.2015.2.24909
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    ABSTRACT: Opioid-related deaths, abuse, and drug interactions are growing epidemic problems that have medical, social, and economic implications. Drug transporters play a major role in the disposition of many drugs, including opioids; hence they can modulate their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and their associated drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Our understanding of the interaction of transporters with many therapeutic agents is improving; however, investigating such interactions with opioids is progressing relatively slowly despite the alarming number of opioids-mediated DDIs that may be related to transporters. This review presents a comprehensive report of the current literature relating to opioids and their drug transporter interactions. Additionally, it highlights the emergence of transporters that are yet to be fully identified but may play prominent roles in the disposition of opioids, the growing interest in transporter genomics for opioids, and the potential implications of opioid-drug transporter interactions for cancer treatments. A better understanding of drug transporters interactions with opioids will provide greater insight into potential clinical DDIs and could help improve opioids safety and efficacy.
    Pharmaceutical Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11095-015-1711-5 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Opioid analgesic prescriptions are driving trends in drug overdoses, but little is known about prescribing patterns among medical specialties. We conducted this study to examine the opioid-prescribing patterns of the medical specialties over time. IMS Health's National Prescription Audit (NPA) estimated the annual counts of pharmaceutical prescriptions dispensed in the U.S. during 2007-2012. We grouped NPA prescriber specialty data by practice type for ease of analysis, and measured the distribution of total prescriptions and opioid prescriptions by specialty. We calculated the percentage of all prescriptions dispensed that were opioids, and evaluated changes in that rate by specialty during 2007-2012. The analysis was conducted in 2013. In 2012, U.S. pharmacies and long-term care facilities dispensed 4.2 billion prescriptions, 289 million (6.8%) of which were opioids. Primary care specialties accounted for nearly half of all dispensed opioid prescriptions. The rate of opioid prescribing was highest for specialists in pain medicine (48.6%); surgery (36.5%); and physical medicine/rehabilitation (35.5%). The rate of opioid prescribing rose during 2007-2010 but leveled thereafter as most specialties reduced opioid use. The greatest percentage increase in opioid-prescribing rates during 2007-2012 occurred among physical medicine/rehabilitation specialists (+12.0%). The largest percentage drops in opioid-prescribing rates occurred in emergency medicine (-8.9%) and dentistry (-5.7%). The data indicate diverging trends in opioid prescribing among medical specialties in the U.S. during 2007-2012. Engaging the medical specialties individually is critical for continued improvement in the safe and effective treatment of pain. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    American journal of preventive medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.02.020 · 4.28 Impact Factor