Evaluating Other Diseases With Computed Tomographic Screening for Lung Cancer Reply

JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 02/2013; 309(7):656-7. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.157211
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: To create standard thoracic bone mineral density (BMD) values for patients undergoing cardiac computed tomography (CT) by using thoracic quantitative CT and to compare these BMDs (in a subpopulation) with those obtained by using lumbar spine quantitative CT. The institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant study. A total of 9585 asymptomatic subjects (mean age, 56 years; age range, 30-90 years) who underwent coronary artery calcium scanning, including 4131 women, were examined. Patients with vertebral deformities or fractures were excluded. Six hundred forty-four subjects (322 of whom were female) also underwent lumbar quantitative CT. The mean thoracic vertebral BMDs for both sexes were reported separately in a subgroup of subjects aged 30 years and in 29 age-based subgroups in 2-year intervals from ages 30 to 90 years. The formulas used to calculate the female T score (T(f)) and the male T score (T(m)) on the basis of thoracic quantitative CT measurements were as follows: T(f) = (BMD(im) - 222)/36, and T(m) = (BMD(im) - 215)/33, where BMD(im) is the individual mean BMD. Comparisons between thoracic quantitative CT and lumbar quantitative CT measurements, as well as analyses of intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variability, were performed. The young-subgroup mean BMD was 221.9 mg/mL ± 36.2 (standard deviation) for the female subjects and 215.2 mg/mL ± 33.2 for the male subjects. The mean thoracic BMDs for the female and male subjects were found to be 20.7% higher and 17.0% higher, respectively, than the values measured with lumbar quantitative CT (P < .001 for both comparisons). A significant positive association between the thoracic and lumbar quantitative CT measurements (r > 0.85, P < .001) was found. Intraobserver, interobserver, and interscan variabilities in thoracic quantitative CT measurements were 2.5%, 2.6%, and 2.8%, respectively. There was a significant association between the mean thoracic and lumbar BMDs. Therefore, standard derived measurements (young-subgroup BMD ± standard deviation) based on these data can be used with thoracic CT images to estimate the bone mineral status.
    Radiology 11/2010; 257(2):434-40. DOI:10.1148/radiol.10100132 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the usefulness of ordinal scoring of the visual assessment of coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest in the prediction of cardiovascular death. All participants consented to low-dose CT screening according to an institutional review board-approved protocol. The amount of CAC was assessed on ungated low-dose CT scans of the chest obtained between June 2000 and December 2005 in a cohort of 8782 smokers aged 40-85 years. The four main coronary arteries were visually scored, and each participant received a CAC score of 0-12. The date and cause of death was obtained by using the National Death Index. Follow-up time (median, 72.3 months; range, 0.3-91.9 months) was calculated as the time between CT and death, loss to follow-up, or December 31, 2007, whichever came first. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk of mortality according to CAC category adjusted for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and sex. The same analysis to determine the hazard ratio for survival from cardiac death was performed by using Cox regression analysis. The rate of cardiovascular deaths increased with an increasing CAC score and was 1.2% (43 of 3573 subjects) for a score of 0, 1.8% (66 of 3569 subjects) for a score of 1-3, 5.0% (51 of 1015 subjects) for a score of 4-6, and 5.3% (33 of 625 subjects) for a score of 7-12. With use of subjects with a CAC score of 0 as the reference group, a CAC score of at least 4 was a significant predictor of cardiovascular death (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 6.8; P < .0001); when adjusted for sex, age, and pack-years of smoking, the CAC score remained significant (OR, 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1; P = .0002). Visual assessment of CAC on low-dose CT scans provides clinically relevant quantitative information as to cardiovascular death.
    Radiology 11/2010; 257(2):541-8. DOI:10.1148/radiol.10100383 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is becoming an increasingly important public health issue, and effective treatments to prevent fragility fractures are available. Osteoporosis imaging is of critical importance in identifying individuals at risk for fractures who would require pharmacotherapy to reduce fracture risk and also in monitoring response to treatment. Dual x-ray absorptiometry is currently the state-of-the-art technique to measure bone mineral density and to diagnose osteoporosis according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Motivated by a 2000 National Institutes of Health consensus conference, substantial research efforts have focused on assessing bone quality by using advanced imaging techniques. Among these techniques aimed at better characterizing fracture risk and treatment effects, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (CT) currently plays a central role, and a large number of recent studies have used this technique to study trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Other techniques to analyze bone quality include multidetector CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and quantitative ultrasonography. In addition to quantitative imaging techniques measuring bone density and quality, imaging needs to be used to diagnose prevalent osteoporotic fractures, such as spine fractures on chest radiographs and sagittal multidetector CT reconstructions. Radiologists need to be sensitized to the fact that the presence of fragility fractures will alter patient care, and these fractures need to be described in the report. This review article covers state-of-the-art imaging techniques to measure bone mineral density, describes novel techniques to study bone quality, and focuses on how standard imaging techniques should be used to diagnose prevalent osteoporotic fractures.
    Radiology 04/2012; 263(1):3-17. DOI:10.1148/radiol.12110462 · 6.87 Impact Factor