The palliation of cholangiocarcinoma
ABSTRACT PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary liver tumour, worldwide. Its incidence and mortality are rising, the cause of which is unclear. Cholangiocarcinoma usually presents late, with obstructive jaundice, malaise, weight loss and discomfort. For most patients, complete surgical resection, the only potential cure, is not possible. Survival length and palliation of symptoms become paramount and often this centres on restoration of bile flow to relieve jaundice and improve general well being. There are now multiple options to achieve this goal and emerging evidence supports certain methods over others. RECENT FINDINGS: For advanced cholangiocarcinoma, endoscopic biliary stenting has become an established treatment. Recent evidence supports the use of metal stents over plastic to improve survival and stent patency. Locoregional therapies, such as radiofrequency ablation, transarterial chemoembolisation and radiotherapy have shown promise in preliminary studies. Landmark studies have established the use of cisplatin and gemcitabine as first-line chemotherapy in advanced cholangiocarcinoma. SUMMARY: The rise in incidence of advanced cholangiocarcinoma, has necessitated the development of novel therapies to optimize palliation. This article discusses the current options for palliation of cholangiocarcinoma, including stenting, locoregional therapy, surgery, endoscopic ultrasound and palliative chemotherapy.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen P Pereira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Indeterminate bilary strictures present the clinician with a wide differential diagnosis. Histological confirmation is usually required for treatment, but tissue acquisition remains challenging. Novel developments in endoscopic technology, such as single operator cholangioscopy and confocal endomicroscopy, have led to improvements in diagnostic accuracy in recent years. In patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction, effective biliary decompression improves symptoms and enables patients to undergo palliative therapies. Improvements in endoscopic techniques, biliary stents and the development of local ablative techniques have led to further improvements in stent patency and survival in these patients. In this article, we review emerging diagnostic and therapeutic techniques for the endoscopic management of indeterminate biliary strictures.09/2013; 5:38. DOI:10.12703/P5-38
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a rare cancer arising from the epithelium of the biliary tree, anywhere from the small peripheral hepatic ducts to the distal common bile duct. Classification systems for CC typically group tumours by anatomical location into intrahepatic, hilar or extrahepatic subtypes. Surgical resection or liver transplantation remains the only curative therapy for CC, but up to 80% of patients present with advanced, irresectable disease. Unresectable CC remains resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents, although gemcitabine, particularly in combination with other agents, has been shown to improve overall survival. Ongoing investigation of biological agents has also yielded some promising results. Several novel interventional and endoscopic techniques for the diagnosis and management of non-operable CC have been developed: initial results show improvements in symptoms and progression-free survival, but further randomised studies are required to establish their role in the management of CC. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Digestive Diseases 01/2014; 32(5):570-8. DOI:10.1159/000360507 · 1.83 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer with or without metastatic disease is associated with a very poor prognosis. Current standard therapy is limited to chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Few regimens have been shown to have a substantial survival advantage and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. Thermal and laser based ablative techniques are widely used in many solid organ malignancies. Initial studies in the pancreas were associated with significant morbidity and mortality, which limited widespread adoption. Modifications to the various applications, in particular combining the techniques with high quality imaging such as computed tomography and intraoperative or endoscopic ultrasound has enabled real time treatment monitoring and significant improvements in safety. We conducted a systematic review of the literature up to October 2013. Initial studies suggest that ablative therapies may confer an additional survival benefit over best supportive care but randomised studies are required to validate these findings.World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2014; 20(9):2267-2278. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i9.2267 · 2.43 Impact Factor