Parents' Treatment of Their Children's Pain at Home: Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Approaches
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: During childhood, pain often is experienced on a nearly daily basis. This study focuses on pain alleviation techniques provided by parents, because children's painful experiences are most often treated at home. Hypotheses addressed various factors that can influence use of pain alleviation techniques, including parents' level of catastrophizing about their children's pain, children's age, and conversations with health care professionals. METHOD: A total of 756 parents of children ages 6 to 17 years completed an online survey regarding pain alleviation including use and effectiveness of pharmacological and nonpharmacological techniques, pain catastrophizing, and questions regarding dialogue with health care professionals. RESULTS: Parents with increased pain catastrophizing used more pharmacological techniques, and child self-administration of pain alleviation techniques increased with the child's age. Parents were more likely to have spoken with their health care professional about pharmacological techniques. DISCUSSION: This study provides information that can help health care professionals initiate conversations regarding treatment options and align recommendations with techniques that parents are likely to use, and it can help health care professionals provide supportive alternative recommendations.
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ABSTRACT: Involving parents in children's pain management is essential to achieve optimal outcomes. Parents need to be equipped with sufficient knowledge and information. Only a limited number of studies have explored nurses' provision of parental guidance regarding the use of nonpharmacologic methods in children's pain management. This study aimed to examine nurses' perceptions of providing preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods to parents, and how their demographics and perceived knowledge adequacy of these methods influence this guidance. A descriptive correlational study using questionnaire surveys was conducted to collect data from a convenience sample of 134 registered nurses working in seven pediatric wards of two public hospitals in Singapore. Descriptive statistics, independent-samples t test, and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the data. Most nurses provided various types of cognitive information to parents related to their children's surgery, whereas information about children's feelings was less often provided. Most nurses provided guidance to parents on positioning, breathing technique, comforting/reassurance, helping with activities of daily living, relaxation, and creating a comfortable environment. Nurses' provision of parental guidance on preparatory information and nonpharmacologic methods was significantly different between subgroups of age, education, parent or not, and perceived knowledge adequacy of nonpharmacologic methods. Nurses' perceived knowledge adequacy was the main factor influencing their provision of parental guidance. More attention should be paid to nurses who are younger, have less working experience, and are not parents. There is a need to educate nurses about nonpharmacologic pain relief methods to optimize their provision of parental guidance.Pain management nursing: official journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses 06/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1016/j.pmn.2014.03.002 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Neonates cared for in neonatal intensive care units are exposed to many painful and stressful procedures, which cumulatively, could impact later neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, a systematic analysis of these effects has yet to be reported. Objectives: The aim of this research was to review empirical studies examining the association between early neonatal pain experiences of preterm infants and the subsequent developmental outcomes of these children across different ages. Methods: The literature search was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Lilacs, and SciELO databases and included the following key words: "pain", "preterm", and "development". Additionally, a complementary search was performed in online journals that published pain and developmental studies to ensure all of the target studies had been found. The data were extracted according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Thirteen studies were analyzed. In infants born extremely preterm (gestational age, GA<=29[medium shade]wk) greater numbers of painful procedures were associated with delayed postnatal growth, with poor early neurodevelopment, high cortical activation, and with altered brain development. In toddlers born very preterm (GA<=32[medium shade]wk) biobehavioral pain reactivity-recovery scores were associated with negative affectivity temperament. Furthermore, greater numbers of neonatal painful experiences were associated with a poor quality of cognitive and motor development at 1 year of age, and changes in cortical rhythmicity and cortical thickness in children at 7 years of age. Conclusions: For infants born preterm, neonatal pain-related stress was associated with alterations in both early and in later developmental outcomes. Few longitudinal studies examined the impact of neonatal pain in the long-term development of children born preterm. Copyright 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.Clinical Journal of Pain 04/2015; 31(4):355-62. DOI:10.1097/AJP.0000000000000114 · 2.70 Impact Factor