Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in Parkinson disease.

Clinica Neurologica, Università di Perugia, Ospedale Santa Maria della Misericordia, 06132 Santa Andrea delle Fratte, Perugia, Italy.
Nature Reviews Neurology (Impact Factor: 14.1). 03/2013; 9(3):131-40. DOI: 10.1038/nrneurol.2013.10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is difficult in early stages of disease, with high risk of misdiagnosis. The long preclinical phase of PD provides the possibility for early therapeutic intervention once disease-modifying therapies have been developed, but lack of biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression represents a major obstacle to achievement of this goal. Accordingly, research efforts aimed at identification of novel biomarkers have been increasing in the past 5 years. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an accessible source of brain-derived proteins, which mirror molecular changes that take place in the CNS. In this Review, we discuss evidence from numerous studies that have focused on identification of candidate CSF biomarkers for PD. Notably, molecular pathways related to α-synuclein, tau and β-amyloid peptides have received considerable attention. CSF levels of the protein DJ-1 are also of interest, although further investigation of this candidate marker is required. These studies support the usefulness of a combination of various CSF biomarkers of PD to increase diagnostic accuracy during early phases of the disease, and to differentiate PD from other neurodegenerative disorders.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) has been shown to promote both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. Similarly, other routinely used nonspecific markers of neuronal damage can be found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and can be used as biomarkers for different neurodegenerative disorders. Methods Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and western blotting we assessed PAR-2, total-tau, phospho-tau, beta-amyloid levels, and protein 14-3-3 in the CSF of former patients who had undergone a neuropathological autopsy after death and who had been definitively diagnosed with a prion or other neurodegenerative disease. Results We did not find any significant correlation between levels of PAR-2 and other biomarkers, nor did we find any differences in PAR-2 levels between prion diseases and other neurodegenerative conditions. However, we confirmed that very high total-tau levels were significantly associated with definitive prion diagnoses and exhibited greater sensitivity and specificity than protein 14-3-3, which is routinely used as a marker. Conclusions Our study showed that PAR-2, in CSF, was not specifically altered in prion diseases compared to other neurodegenerative conditions. Our results also confirmed that very high total-tau protein CSF levels were significantly associated with a definitive Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) diagnosis and should be routinely tested as a diagnostic marker. Observed individual variability in CSF biomarkers provide invaluable feedback from neuropathological examinations even in “clinically certain” cases. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12883-015-0300-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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May 30, 2014