Antipsychotic drugs, mood stabilizers, and risk of pneumonia in bipolar disorder: a nationwide case-control study.
ABSTRACT Like mood stabilizers, most second-generation antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with bipolar disorder, yet their safety is still a concern. This study explored the association between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and the risk of pneumonia, and it provides evidence-based information for clinical practice.
In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (ICD-9 codes 296.0 to 296.16, 296.4 to 296.81, and 296.89) derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, who were admitted between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006 (N = 9,999), we identified 571 patients who developed pneumonia (ICD-9 codes 480 to 486 and 507) requiring hospitalization defined as cases. On the basis of risk-set sampling in a 1:4 ratio, 2,277 matched controls were selected from the same cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to assess the association between drug exposure and pneumonia and sensitivity analyses to validate the association.
Current use of several antipsychotics separately, including olanzapine (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 2.97, P < .001), clozapine (RR = 2.59, P < .01), and haloperidol (RR = 3.68, P < .001), is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of pneumonia. Interestingly, lithium has a dose-dependent protective effect from pneumonia. Among certain drug combinations, olanzapine plus carbamazepine had the highest risk (RR = 11.88, P < .01), followed by clozapine plus valproic acid (RR = 4.80, P < .001).
Several antipsychotics, but not mood stabilizers, were associated with the risk of pneumonia, which deserves our concern regarding patient safety. Some of the combinations of therapy resulted in synergy of risk.
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ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741), we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia). Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01). Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01), incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183) and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01). Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine) known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e70142. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2014; 10:841-864. · 2.00 Impact Factor