Antipsychotic Drugs, Mood Stabilizers, and Risk of Pneumonia in Bipolar Disorder: A Nationwide Case-Control Study
ABSTRACT Like mood stabilizers, most second-generation antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with bipolar disorder, yet their safety is still a concern. This study explored the association between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers and the risk of pneumonia, and it provides evidence-based information for clinical practice.
In a nationwide cohort of bipolar patients (ICD-9 codes 296.0 to 296.16, 296.4 to 296.81, and 296.89) derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, who were admitted between July 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006 (N = 9,999), we identified 571 patients who developed pneumonia (ICD-9 codes 480 to 486 and 507) requiring hospitalization defined as cases. On the basis of risk-set sampling in a 1:4 ratio, 2,277 matched controls were selected from the same cohort. We used conditional logistic regression to assess the association between drug exposure and pneumonia and sensitivity analyses to validate the association.
Current use of several antipsychotics separately, including olanzapine (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 2.97, P < .001), clozapine (RR = 2.59, P < .01), and haloperidol (RR = 3.68, P < .001), is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the risk of pneumonia. Interestingly, lithium has a dose-dependent protective effect from pneumonia. Among certain drug combinations, olanzapine plus carbamazepine had the highest risk (RR = 11.88, P < .01), followed by clozapine plus valproic acid (RR = 4.80, P < .001).
Several antipsychotics, but not mood stabilizers, were associated with the risk of pneumonia, which deserves our concern regarding patient safety. Some of the combinations of therapy resulted in synergy of risk.
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ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is one of most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide and is associated with considerable mortality. In comparison to general population, schizophrenia patients hospitalized for pneumonia have poorer outcomes. We explored the risk factors of short-term mortality in this population because the information is lacking in the literature. In a nationwide schizophrenia cohort, derived from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan, that was hospitalized for pneumonia between 2000 and 2008 (n = 1,741), we identified 141 subjects who died during their hospitalizations or shortly after their discharges. Based on risk-set sampling in a 1∶4 ratio, 468 matched controls were selected from the study cohort (i.e., schizophrenia cohort with pneumonia). Physical illnesses were categorized as pre-existing and incident illnesses that developed after pneumonia respectively. Exposures to medications were categorized by type, duration, and defined daily dose. We used stepwise conditional logistic regression to explore the risk factors for short-term mortality. Pre-existing arrhythmia was associated with short-term mortality (adjusted risk ratio [RR] = 4.99, p<0.01). Several variables during hospitalization were associated with increased mortality risk, including incident arrhythmia (RR = 7.44, p<0.01), incident heart failure (RR = 5.49, p = 0.0183) and the use of hypoglycemic drugs (RR = 2.32, p<0.01). Furthermore, individual antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine) known to induce pneumonia were not significantly associated with the risk. Incident cardiac complications following pneumonia are associated with increased short-term mortality. These findings have broad implications for clinical intervention and future studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of the risk factors.PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e70142. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070142 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of olanzapine versus other antipsychotics, may warrant further investigation via studies incorporating both populations. Use of local data to provide evidence for practice guidelines should be encouraged, and may promote ongoing improvements in the quality of research and study reporting.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 05/2014; 10:841-864. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S58096 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: People with severe mental illness have a considerably shorter lifespan than the general population. This excess mortality is mainly due to physical illness. Next to mental illness-related factors, unhealthy lifestyle, and disparities in health care access and utilization, psychotropic medications can contribute to the risk of physical morbidity and mortality. We systematically reviewed the effects of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers on physical health outcomes in people with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Updating and expanding our prior systematic review published in this journal, we searched MEDLINE (November 2009 - November 2014), combining the MeSH terms of major physical disease categories (and/or relevant diseases within these categories) with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder, and the three major psychotropic classes which received regulatory approval for these disorders, i.e., antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. We gave precedence to results from (systematic) reviews and meta-analyses wherever possible. Antipsychotics, and to a more restricted degree antidepressants and mood stabilizers, are associated with an increased risk for several physical diseases, including obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, hyponatremia; cardiovascular, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, haematological, musculoskeletal and renal diseases, as well as movement and seizure disorders. Higher dosages, polypharmacy, and treatment of vulnerable (e.g., old or young) individuals are associated with greater absolute (elderly) and relative (youth) risk for most of these physical diseases. To what degree medication-specific and patient-specific risk factors interact, and how adverse outcomes can be minimized, allowing patients to derive maximum benefits from these medications, requires adequate clinical attention and further research. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.06/2015; 14(2). DOI:10.1002/wps.20204