Trends in office-based treatment of adults with stimulants in the United States.
ABSTRACT The authors investigated trends and patterns in stimulant treatment of adults visiting office-based medical practices in the United States.
A time series analysis of data from the 1994 to 2009 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (no. of visits = 372,702) was performed, focusing on adult (aged ≥ 18 years) visits in which stimulant medications (amphetamine salts, methylphenidate, or pemoline) were prescribed. The authors computed trends in the percentage of visits in which a stimulant was prescribed stratified by background and clinical patient characteristics. Results are reported as odds ratios (ORs) over the 1994 to 2009 period. The authors also compare visits to psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrist physicians that yielded a stimulant prescription to an adult.
The percentage of visits in which stimulants were prescribed increased from 0.11% (1994-1997) to 0.70% (2006-2009) (OR = 13.72, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.40-20.03). Among adults aged 18 to 29 years, the corresponding increase in stimulant visits was from 0.17% to 1.83% (OR = 30.14, 95% CI, 15.84-57.36). Stimulant prescriptions increased significantly more rapidly among visits without a clinical ADHD diagnosis (OR = 11.86, 95% CI, 7.49-18.80) than among visits with such a diagnosis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI, 2.96-10.04) (interaction P = .04) and among visits to nonpsychiatrist physicians (OR = 21.54, 95% CI, 12.84-36.12) than psychiatrists (OR = 10.64, 95% CI, 6.72-16.86) (interaction P = .03). By 2006-2009, nonpsychiatrist physicians provided most (57.7%) of the stimulant prescriptions linked to adult office-based visits. As compared with psychiatrists, nonpsychiatrist physicians diagnosed ADHD in a significantly smaller proportion of their adult visits in which stimulants were prescribed (62.5% vs 34.4%, P < .0001).
Between 1994 and 2009, there was a substantial increase in stimulant prescriptions during adult outpatient visits, especially during visits of younger adults. The increase in stimulant treatment occurred significantly more rapidly in the practices of nonpsychiatrist physicians than in those of psychiatrists.
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ABSTRACT: Drugged driving is a safety issue of increasing public concern. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System for 1999-2010, we assessed trends in alcohol and other drugs detected in drivers who were killed within 1 hour of a motor vehicle crash in 6 US states (California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and West Virginia) that routinely performed toxicological testing on drivers involved in such crashes. Of the 23,591 drivers studied, 39.7% tested positive for alcohol and 24.8% for other drugs. During the study period, the prevalence of positive results for nonalcohol drugs rose from 16.6% in 1999 to 28.3% in 2010 (Z = -10.19, P < 0.0001), whereas the prevalence of positive results for alcohol remained stable. The most commonly detected nonalcohol drug was cannabinol, the prevalence of which increased from 4.2% in 1999 to 12.2% in 2010 (Z = -13.63, P < 0.0001). The increase in the prevalence of nonalcohol drugs was observed in all age groups and both sexes. These results indicate that nonalcohol drugs, particularly marijuana, are increasingly detected in fatally injured drivers.American journal of epidemiology 01/2014; · 4.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess recent national trends in mental health care provided by office-based psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Trends in mental health-related visits to psychiatrists and primary care physicians are evaluated with the 1995-2010 National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys. Rates and percentages of visits with mental health complaints, mental disorder diagnoses, psychotropic medications, and psychotherapy or mental health counseling were calculated for 1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007-2010 by dividing the number of visits of a given type by intercensal population estimates. Between 1995-1998 and 2007-2010, a significant increase occurred in the rate per 100 population of primary care visits with mental health complaints (5.96 to 8.49) (OR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.62, mental disorders (8.75 to 13.23) (OR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.26-1.56), and psychotropic medications (11.08 to 26.74) (OR=3.43; 95% CI, 2.16-2.71). Significant corresponding increases occurred in psychiatrist visits with psychotropic medications (5.28 to 7.85) (OR = 2.25; 95% CI, 1.49-3.41), but not mental disorders (7.60 to 8.95) (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.34-2.23), and the rate with mental health complaints significantly declined (5.87 to 5.20) (OR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.33-0.62). During this period, the percentages of visits to primary care physicians that included prescriptions for antidepressants (interaction P = .0001), antipsychotics (interaction P = .03), and anxiolytics/hypnotics (interaction P = .0009) increased significantly faster than the corresponding percentages of visits to psychiatrists. A similar pattern occurred for visits that resulted in a bipolar disorder diagnosis (interaction P = .01). In recent years, office-based primary care physicians have significantly increased their involvement in providing mental health care. These trends underscore the importance of collaboration between primary care physicians and psychiatrists to help ensure provision of high quality outpatient mental health care.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 03/2014; 75(3):247-53. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In 2011, an estimated 26.8 million US adults used prescription medications for mental illness.JAMA Psychiatry 07/2014; · 12.01 Impact Factor