Prevention of cholesterol gallstones by inhibiting hepatic biosynthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 2.83). 02/2013; DOI: 10.1111/eci.12058
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Cholesterol cholelithiasis is a multifactorial disease influenced by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors and represents a failure of biliary cholesterol homoeostasis in which the physical-chemical balance of cholesterol solubility in bile is disturbed. DESIGN: The primary pathophysiologic event is persistent hepatic hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has both hepatic and small intestinal components. The majority of the environmental factors are probably related to Western-type dietary habits, including excess cholesterol consumption. RESULTS: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the United States, is nowadays a major treatment for gallstones. However, it is invasive and can cause surgical complications, and not all patients with symptomatic gallstones are candidates for surgery. The hydrophilic bile acid, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), has been employed as first-line pharmacological therapy in a subgroup of symptomatic patients with small, radiolucent cholesterol gallstones. Long-term administration of UDCA can promote the dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. However, the optimal use of UDCA is not always achieved in clinical practice because of failure to titrate the dose adequately. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the development of novel, effective and noninvasive therapies is crucial for reducing the costs of health care associated with gallstones. In this review, we summarize recent progress in investigating the inhibitory effects of ezetimibe and statins on intestinal absorption and hepatic biosynthesis of cholesterol, respectively, for the treatment of gallstones, as well as in elucidating their molecular mechanisms by which combination therapy could prevent this very common liver disease worldwide.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundStatins can modify bile cholesterol and, thus, the formation of gallstones. We examined whether statin use also modifies the severity of symptomatic gallstone disease and its treatment.MethodsA total of 1,140 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were recruited during 2008-2010 at Kuopio university hospital, Finland. Case-control analysis matched the patients using (n = 272) or not using (n = 272) statins by age and sex. The baseline characteristics of the patients, need and type of surgical treatment, duration of operation, perioperative bleeding, postoperative complications and overall mortality rate were compared statistically between the study groups.ResultsMorbidity and subsequent polypharmacy occurred more frequently among the patients with statins compared to the patients without statins. There were no significant differences between the statin users and non-users regarding surgical treatment (open vs. laparoscopic cholecystectomy). The mean operation time for laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 10% shorter for the patients with statin use than for the patients without. In addition, there was a non-significant tendency for statin users to bleed less during laparoscopic operations than the non-users. There were no differences in other procedure-related parameters (e.g., operation urgency, conversions, choledochotomies, complications and mortality) in patients with or without statins.ConclusionsCompared to no treatment, statin treatment was associated with a shorter operation time for laparoscopy cholecystectomy. Other surgical outcome parameters were similar in patients with or without statins, although statin users had more polypharmacy and circulatory illnesses than non-users.
    BMC Gastroenterology 07/2014; 14(1):119. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-119 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Estrogen is an important risk factor for cholesterol cholelithiasis not only in women of childbearing age taking oral contraceptives and postmenopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy, but also in male patients receiving estrogen therapy for prostatic cancer. In women, hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy markedly increase the risk of developing gallstones. We investigated whether the potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe could prevent the formation of estrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice.
    European Journal of Clinical Investigation 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/eci.12350 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for the formation of cholesterol gallstones and exposes patients to increased risk of gallstone-related complications and cholecystectomy. Rapid weight loss achieved by very low calorie diets or bariatric surgery is also a risk factor for cholelithiasis in obese patients, and therapy should take into account the higher prevalence of gallstones, the possibility of more frequent complications and the need for prophylactic treatment with oral ursodeoxycholic acid during weight loss. Obesity is also frequent in children and adolescents, and the burden of cholesterol cholelithiasis is increasing in this population. The chance to develop acute pancreatitis and the severity of the disease are higher in obese subjects because of specific pathogenic factors, including supersaturated bile and crystal formation, rapid weight loss, and visceral obesity. All health policies aimed at reducing the incidence of obesity worldwide will decrease the incidence of gallstones and gallstone-related complications. The pathophysiological scenarios and the therapeutic implications for obesity, gallstone disease, and pancreatitis are discussed.
    Baillière&#x027 s Best Practice and Research in Clinical Gastroenterology 08/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2014.07.013 · 3.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Oct 13, 2014