The CORVET complex promotes tethering and fusion of Rab5/Vps21-positive membranes.
ABSTRACT Membrane fusion along the endocytic pathway occurs in a sequence of tethering, docking, and fusion. At endosomes and vacuoles, the CORVET (class C core vacuole/endosome tethering) and HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) tethering complexes require their organelle-specific Rabs for localization and function. Until now, despite the absence of experimental evidence, it has been assumed that CORVET is a membrane-tethering factor. To test this theory and understand the mechanistic analogies with the HOPS complex, we set up an in vitro system, and establish CORVET as a bona-fide tether for Vps21-positive endosome/vacuole membranes. Purified CORVET binds to SNAREs and Rab5/Vps21-GTP. We then demonstrate that purified CORVET can specifically tether Vps21-positive membranes. Tethering via CORVET is dose-dependent, stimulated by the GEF Vps9, and inhibited by Msb3, the Vps21-GAP. Moreover, CORVET supports fusion of isolated membranes containing Vps21. In agreement with its role as a tether, overexpressed CORVET drives Vps21, but not the HOPS-specific Ypt7 into contact sites between vacuoles, which likely represent vacuole-associated endosomes. We therefore conclude that CORVET is a tethering complex that promotes fusion of Rab5-positive membranes and thus facilitates receptor down-regulation and recycling at the late endosome.
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ABSTRACT: Since the late 1990s, a number of multisubunit tethering complexes (MTCs) have been described that function in membrane trafficking events: TRAPP I, TRAPP II, TRAPP III, COG, HOPS, CORVET, Dsl1, GARP and exocyst. Based mainly on structural and sequence similarities, they have been categorized as complexes associated with tethering containing helical rods (CATCHR) (Dsl1, COG, GARP, exocyst) or non-CATCHR (TRAPP I, II and III, HOPS, CORVET) complexes (1). Both acronyms (CATCHR and MTC) imply these complexes tether opposing membranes to facilitate fusion. The main question we will address is: have these complexes been formally demonstrated to function as tethers? If the answer is no, then is it premature or even correct to refer to them as tethers? In this commentary, we will argue that the vast majority of MTCs have not been demonstrated to act as a tether. We propose that a distinction between the terms tether and tethering factor be considered to address this issue.Traffic 07/2014; DOI:10.1111/tra.12200 · 4.71 Impact Factor
Article: Membrane tethering.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems.09/2014; 6:74. DOI:10.12703/P6-74
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ABSTRACT: Endosomal and vacuole fusion depends on the two homologous tethering complexes CORVET and HOPS. HOPS binds the activated Rab GTPase Ypt7 via two distinct subunits, Vps39 and Vps41. To understand the participation and possible polarity of Vps41 and Vps39 during tethering, we used an in vivo approach. For this, we established the ligand-induced relocalization to the plasma membrane, using the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex that activates Ypt7 on endosomes. We then employed slight overexpression to compare the mobility of the HOPS-specific Vps41 and Vps39 subunits during this process. Our data indicate an asymmetry in the Rab-specific interaction of the two HOPS subunits: Vps39 is more tightly bound to the vacuole, and relocalizes the entire vacuole to the plasma membrane, whereas Vps41 behaved like the more mobile subunit. This is due to their specific Rab binding, as the mobility of both subunits was similar in ypt7∆ cells. In contrast, both HOPS subunits were far less mobile if tagged endogenously, suggesting that the entire HOPS complex is tightly bound to the vacuole in vivo. Similar results were obtained for the endosomal association of CORVET, when we followed its Rab-specific subunit Vps8. Our data provide in vivo evidence for distinct Rab specificity within HOPS, which may explain its function during tethering, and indicate that these tethering complexes are less mobile within the cell than previously anticipated.04/2014; 4:e29191. DOI:10.4161/cl.29191This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.