The CORVET complex promotes tethering and fusion of Rab5/Vps21-positive membranes.
ABSTRACT Membrane fusion along the endocytic pathway occurs in a sequence of tethering, docking, and fusion. At endosomes and vacuoles, the CORVET (class C core vacuole/endosome tethering) and HOPS (homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting) tethering complexes require their organelle-specific Rabs for localization and function. Until now, despite the absence of experimental evidence, it has been assumed that CORVET is a membrane-tethering factor. To test this theory and understand the mechanistic analogies with the HOPS complex, we set up an in vitro system, and establish CORVET as a bona-fide tether for Vps21-positive endosome/vacuole membranes. Purified CORVET binds to SNAREs and Rab5/Vps21-GTP. We then demonstrate that purified CORVET can specifically tether Vps21-positive membranes. Tethering via CORVET is dose-dependent, stimulated by the GEF Vps9, and inhibited by Msb3, the Vps21-GAP. Moreover, CORVET supports fusion of isolated membranes containing Vps21. In agreement with its role as a tether, overexpressed CORVET drives Vps21, but not the HOPS-specific Ypt7 into contact sites between vacuoles, which likely represent vacuole-associated endosomes. We therefore conclude that CORVET is a tethering complex that promotes fusion of Rab5-positive membranes and thus facilitates receptor down-regulation and recycling at the late endosome.
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ABSTRACT: The end of the life of a transport vesicle requires a complex series of tethering, docking and fusion events. Tethering complexes play a crucial role in the recognition of membrane entities and bringing them in close opposition, thereby coordinating and controlling cellular trafficking events. Here we provide a comprehensive RNAi analysis of the CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes in metazoans. Knockdown of CORVET components promoted RAB-7 recruitment to subapical membranes, while in HOPS knockdowns RAB-5 was found also on membrane structures close to the cell center, indicating the RAB conversion might be impaired in the absence of these tethering complexes. Unlike in yeast, metazoans have two VPS33 homologues, which are Sec1/Munc18 family proteins involved in the regulation of membrane fusion. We assume that in wild type, each tethering complex contains a specific SM protein but that they may be able to substitute for each other in case of absence of the other. Importantly, knockdown of both SM proteins allowed the bypass of the endosome maturation block in sand-1 mutants. We propose a model in which the SM proteins in tethering complexes are required for the coordinated flux of material through the endosomal system.Molecular Biology of the Cell 10/2014; DOI:10.1091/mbc.E13-12-0710 · 4.55 Impact Factor
Article: Membrane tethering[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Membrane trafficking depends on transport vesicles and carriers docking and fusing with the target organelle for the delivery of cargo. Membrane tethers and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) mediate the docking of transport vesicles/carriers to enhance the efficiency of the subsequent SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor)-mediated fusion event with the target membrane bilayer. Different classes of membrane tethers and their specific intracellular location throughout the endomembrane system are now well defined. Recent biochemical and structural studies have led to a deeper understanding of the mechanism by which membrane tethers mediate docking of membrane carriers as well as an appreciation of the role of tethers in coordinating the correct SNARE complex and in regulating the organization of membrane compartments. This review will summarize the properties and roles of membrane tethers of both secretory and endocytic systems.09/2014; 6:74. DOI:10.12703/P6-74
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ABSTRACT: Membrane fusion in the endocytic pathway is mediated by a protein machinery consistent of Rab GTPases, tethering factors and SNAREs. In yeast, the endosomal CORVET and lysosomal HOPS tethering complexes share 4 of their 6 subunits. The 2 additional subunits in each complex - Vps3 and Vps8 for CORVET, and the homologous Vps39 and Vps41 for HOPS - bind directly to Rab5 and Rab7, respectively. In humans, all subunits for HOPS have been described. However, human CORVET remains poorly characterized and a homolog of Vps3 is still missing. Here we characterize 2 previously identified Vps39 isoforms, hVps39-1/hVam6/TLP and hVps39-2/TRAP1, in yeast and HEK293 cells. None of them can compensate the loss of the endogenous yeast Vps39, though the specific interaction of hVps39-1 with the virus-specific LT protein was reproduced. Both human Vps39 proteins show a cytosolic localization in yeast and mammalian cells. However, hVps39-2/TRAP1 strongly co-localizes with co-expressed Rab5 and interacts directly with Rab5-GTP in vitro. We conclude that hVps39-2/TRAP1 is an endosomal protein and an effector of Rab5, suggesting a role of the protein as a subunit of the putative human CORVET complex.12/2014; 4(4):e970840. DOI:10.4161/21592780.2014.970840