Nitrogen Removal by a Nitritation-Anammox Bioreactor at Low Temperature

Department of Microbiology, IWWR, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 02/2013; 79(8). DOI: 10.1128/AEM.03987-12
Source: PubMed


Currently, nitritation-anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) bioreactors are designed to treat wastewaters with high ammonium concentration at mesophilic temperatures (25 - 40 °C). The implementation of this technology at ambient temperatures for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater following carbon removal could lead to more sustainable technology with energy and cost savings. However the application of nitritation-anammox bioreactors at low temperature (characteristic of municipal wastewaters expect tropical and subtropical regions) is not yet explored. To this end, a laboratory-scale (5 l) nitritation-anammox sequencing batch reactor was adapted to 12 °C in 10 days and operated for more than 300 days to investigate the feasibility of nitrogen removal from synthetic pre-treated municipal wastewater by the combination of aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox. The activities of both anammox and AOB were high enough to remove more than 90 % of the supplied nitrogen. Multiple aspects, including the presence and activity of anammox, AOB, and aerobic nitrite oxidizers (NOB) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emission were monitored to evaluate the stability of the bioreactor at 12 °C. There was no nitrite accumulation throughout the operational period indicating that anammox bacteria were active at 12 °C and that AOB and anammox bacteria outcompeted NOB. Moreover, our results showed that sludge from wastewater treatment plants designed for treating high ammonium load wastewaters could be used as seeding sludge for wastewater treatment plants aimed at treating municipal wastewater that has low temperature and low ammonium concentrations.

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Available from: Mark Van Loosdrecht, Jun 19, 2014
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    • "For anammox capacity tests, activated sludge and biofilm were separately transferred to 2 L SBR reactors, which were continuously stirred after addition of nitrite and ammonium. Liquid samples were collected every 30 min for nitrogen compounds measurement (Hu et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nitritation-anammox process was successfully established in pilot- and full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 80% was achieved under ammonium loading rate of 0.7-1.3kgN/(m(3)d) in the pilot-scale reactor (12m(3)). Moreover, molecular analysis showed that ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were more abundant in the activated sludge while anammox bacteria were primarily located in the biofilm. The segregation of AOB and anammox bacteria enhanced the nitrogen removal rate and operational stability. Furthermore, a full-scale IFAS reactor of 500m(3) was set-up to treat sludge dewatering liquors. An average nitrogen removal efficiency of 85% and a nitrogen removal rate of 0.48kgN/(m(3)d) were achieved after inoculation. It was noted that high influent suspended solids would seriously affect the performance of the IFAS system. Therefore, a pre-treatment was proposed to reduce suspended solid in the full-scale application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioresource Technology 07/2015; 196:448-453. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.07.090 · 4.49 Impact Factor
    • "Some studies proved stable anammox activity was possible in highly enriched anammox reactors at 10 C and lower (Hendrickx et al., 2012; Isaka et al., 2008; Lotti et al., 2014b). However, nitrite accumulation, a sign of fading anammox activity, was observed in a biofilm system at 15 C (de Clippeleir et al., 2013) and in a system with suspended biomass, inoculated from an anammox enrichment, at 9 C (Hu et al., 2013). Since those studies showed that it is possible to retain anammox activity at low temperatures, the questions is now how to retain anammox activity in combined low temperature PN/A systems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Partial Nitritation/Anammox (PN/A) is a well-established technology for side-stream nitrogen removal from highly concentrated, warm wastewaters. The focus has now shifted to weakly concentrated municipal wastewaters with much lower concentrations and temperatures. The major challenge is the temperature, which ranges from moderate 20 °C in summer to cold 10 °C in winter. For this study, the most frequently used configurations for side-stream applications were exposed to a slow temperature reduction from 20 °C to 10 °C to simulate a realistic temperature gradient. To evaluate the behavior of the different biomasses based on their properties, four lab reactors were operated in two different configurations. Synthetic wastewater was used to avoid side effects of heterotrophic growth. Differences in the response of the different reactor systems to this temperature gradient clearly indicated, that the geometry of the biomass has a major impact on the overall PN/A performance at low temperatures: While anammox activity in suspended biomass suffered already at 15 °C, it persevered in granular biomass as well as in biofilms on carriers for temperatures down to <13 °C. Further, anammox activity in thicker biofilms was less affected than in thinner biofilms and even adaption to low temperatures was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Water Research 05/2015; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2015.05.022 · 5.53 Impact Factor
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    • "nitro - gen removal performance of Anammox at low temper - ature ( Gilbert et al . 2014 ; Hendrickx et al . 2014 ; Hu et al . 2013 ) . An analysis of the community indicates that an optimum temperature shift occurred without change in the community structure and the dominant Anammox species was BCandidatus Brocadia sp . ^ at lower tem - perature ( Hu et al . 2013 ; Lotti et al . 2014a ; Persson et al . 2014 ) . In order to ascertain the reasons for the high low - temperature activity of AAOB , further studies are re - quired . In order to design a low - temperature Anammox procedure , the change rule of SAA for the adaptation of AAOB after long - term cultivation at different tempera - tures nee"
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the low energy costs in the absence of the need for aeration, the non-requirement of a carbon source and alkali, and the reduced production of excess sludge, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox) has been extensively studied as an alternative to the conventional nitrification–denitrification pathway for biological nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, many challenges remain which need to be overcome to prepare the process for engineering application. These include the long doubling time of Anammox bacteria/autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AAOB), the low tolerance capacity to substrate concentration, and high sensitivity to various environmental factors. This review article focuses on the main drawbacks of the Anammox process and evaluates the progress made to date with regard to the enrichment of AAOB and the treatment performance of the Anammox process itself. The factors affecting the nitrogen removal performance of the Anammox process, such as substrate concentration, organic matters, and variation of temperature, are also reviewed and discussed. Finally, the need for the development of long-term storage methods for AAOB is addressed.
    Water Air and Soil Pollution 04/2015; 226(5). DOI:10.1007/s11270-015-2394-6 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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