The NeST Long ncRNA Controls Microbial Susceptibility and Epigenetic Activation of the Interferon-γ Locus.
ABSTRACT Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are increasingly appreciated as regulators of cell-specific gene expression. Here, an enhancer-like lncRNA termed NeST (nettoie Salmonella pas Theiler's [cleanup Salmonella not Theiler's]) is shown to be causal for all phenotypes conferred by murine viral susceptibility locus Tmevp3. This locus was defined by crosses between SJL/J and B10.S mice and contains several candidate genes, including NeST. The SJL/J-derived locus confers higher lncRNA expression, increased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) abundance in activated CD8(+) T cells, increased Theiler's virus persistence, and decreased Salmonella enterica pathogenesis. Transgenic expression of NeST lncRNA alone was sufficient to confer all phenotypes of the SJL/J locus. NeST RNA was found to bind WDR5, a component of the histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase complex, and to alter histone 3 methylation at the IFN-γ locus. Thus, this lncRNA regulates epigenetic marking of IFN-γ-encoding chromatin, expression of IFN-γ, and susceptibility to a viral and a bacterial pathogen.
SourceAvailable from: Xiangbo Ruan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute a significant portion of mammalian genome, yet the physiological importance of lncRNAs is largely unknown. Here, we identify a liver-enriched lncRNA in mouse that we term liver-specific triglyceride regulator (lncLSTR). Mice with a liver-specific depletion of lncLSTR exhibit a marked reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. We show that lncLSTR depletion enhances apoC2 expression, leading to robust lipoprotein lipase activation and increased plasma triglyceride clearance. We further demonstrate that the regulation of apoC2 expression occurs through an FXR-mediated pathway. LncLSTR forms a molecular complex with TDP-43 to regulate expression of Cyp8b1, a key enzyme in the bile acid synthesis pathway, and engenders an in vivo bile pool that induces apoC2 expression through FXR. Finally, we demonstrate that lncLSTR depletion can reduce triglyceride levels in a hyperlipidemia mouse model. Taken together, these data support a model in which lncLSTR regulates a TDP-43/FXR/apoC2-dependent pathway to maintain systemic lipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are expressed in cells but only a few have been well characterized. In these cases, lncRNAs have been shown to be key regulators of several cellular processes. Therefore, there is a great need to understand the function of more lncRNAs and their regulation in response to stimuli. Interferon (IFN) is a key molecule in the cellular antiviral response. IFN binding to its receptor activates transcription of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that function as potent antivirals. In addition, several ISGs are positive or negative regulators of the IFN pathway. This is essential to ensure a strong antiviral response and a later return of the cell to homeostasis. As the ISGs described to date are coding genes, we sought to determine whether IFN also regulates the expression of long non-coding ISGs. To this aim, we used RNA sequencing to analyze the transcriptome of control and HuH7 cells treated with IFNα2. The results show that IFN-treatment regulates the expression of several unknown non-coding transcripts. We have validated two lncRNAs upregulated after treatment with different doses of type I IFNα2 in different cells or with type III IFNλ. These lncRNAs were also induced by influenza and vesicular stomatitis virus mutants unable to block the IFN response, but not by several wild-type lytic viruses tested. These lncRNA genes were named lncISG15 and lncBST2 as they are located close to ISGs ISG15 and BST2, respectively. Interestingly, inhibition experiments showed that lncBST2 is a positive regulator of BST2. Therefore lncBST2 has been renamed BISPR, from BST2 IFN-stimulated positive regulator. Our results may have therapeutic implications as lncBST2/BISPR, but also lncISG15 and their coding neighbors, are increased in cells infected with hepatitis C virus and in the liver of infected patients. These results allow us to hypothesize that several lncRNAs could be activated by IFN to control the potency of the antiviral IFN response.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:655. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00655
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) modulate various biological processes, but their role in host antiviral responses is largely unknown. Here we identify a lncRNA as a key regulator of antiviral innate immunity. Following from the observation that a lncRNA that we call negative regulator of antiviral response (NRAV) was dramatically downregulated during infection with several viruses, we ectopically expressed NRAV in human cells or transgenic mice and found that it significantly promotes influenza A virus (IAV) replication and virulence. Conversely, silencing NRAV suppressed IAV replication and virus production, suggesting that reduction of NRAV is part of the host antiviral innate immune response to virus infection. NRAV negatively regulates the initial transcription of multiple critical interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3 and MxA, by affecting histone modification of these genes. Our results provide evidence for a lncRNA in modulating the antiviral interferon response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Host & Microbe 11/2014; 16(5):616-26. DOI:10.1016/j.chom.2014.10.001 · 12.19 Impact Factor