Article

Xist RNA is a potent suppressor of hematologic cancer in mice.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 02/2013; 152(4):727-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.034
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT X chromosome aneuploidies have long been associated with human cancers, but causality has not been established. In mammals, X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is triggered by Xist RNA to equalize gene expression between the sexes. Here we delete Xist in the blood compartment of mice and demonstrate that mutant females develop a highly aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm and myelodysplastic syndrome (mixed MPN/MDS) with 100% penetrance. Significant disease components include primary myelofibrosis, leukemia, histiocytic sarcoma, and vasculitis. Xist-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) show aberrant maturation and age-dependent loss. Reconstitution experiments indicate that MPN/MDS and myelofibrosis are of hematopoietic rather than stromal origin. We propose that Xist loss results in X reactivation and consequent genome-wide changes that lead to cancer, thereby causally linking the X chromosome to cancer in mice. Thus, Xist RNA not only is required to maintain XCI but also suppresses cancer in vivo.

2 Followers
 · 
233 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematologic parameters are important markers of disease in human and veterinary medicine. Biomedical research has benefited from mouse models that recapitulate such disease, thus expanding knowledge of pathogenetic mechanisms and investigative therapies that translate across species. Mice in health have many notable hematologic differences from humans and other veterinary species, including smaller erythrocytes, higher percentage of circulating reticulocytes or polychromasia, lower peripheral blood neutrophil and higher peripheral blood and bone marrow lymphocyte percentages, variable leukocyte morphologies, physiologic splenic hematopoiesis and iron storage, and more numerous and shorter-lived erythrocytes and platelets. For accurate and complete hematologic analyses of disease and response to investigative therapeutic interventions, these differences and the unique features of murine hematopathology must be understood. Here we review murine hematology and hematopathology for practical application to translational investigation.
    Comparative medicine 01/2015; 65(2):96-113. · 0.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In mammals, X chromosome genes are present in one copy in males and two in females. To balance the dosage of X-linked gene expression between the sexes, one of the X chromosomes in females is silenced. X inactivation is initiated by upregulation of the lncRNA (long non-coding RNA) Xist and recruitment of specific chromatin modifiers. The inactivated X chromosome becomes heterochromatic and visits a specific nuclear compartment adjacent to the nucleolus. Results Here, we show a novel role for the lncRNA Firre in anchoring the inactive mouse X chromosome and preserving one of its main epigenetic features, H3K27me3. Similar to Dxz4, Firre is X-linked and expressed from a macrosatellite repeat locus associated with a cluster of CTCF and cohesin binding sites, and is preferentially located adjacent to the nucleolus. CTCF binding present initially in both male and female mouse embryonic stem cells is lost from the active X during development. Knockdown of Firre disrupts perinucleolar targeting and H3K27me3 levels in mouse fibroblasts, demonstrating a role in maintenance of an important epigenetic feature of the inactive X chromosome. No X-linked gene reactivation is seen after Firre knockdown; however, a compensatory increase in the expression of chromatin modifier genes implicated in X silencing is observed. Further experiments in female embryonic stem cells suggest that Firre does not play a role in X inactivation onset. Conclusions The X-linked lncRNA Firre helps to position the inactive X chromosome near the nucleolus and to preserve one of its main epigenetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-015-0618-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Genome Biology 12/2015; 16(1). DOI:10.1186/s13059-015-0618-0 · 10.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that influence almost every step in the life cycle of genes, from transcription to mRNA splicing, RNA decay, and translation. Besides their participation to normal physiology, lncRNA expression and function have been already associated to cancer development and progression. Here, we review the functional role and mechanisms of action of lncRNAs in normal hematopoiesis and how their misregulation may be implicated in the development of blood cell cancer, such as leukemia.
    04/2015; 2:23. DOI:10.3389/fmed.2015.00023