Identifying recent adaptations in large-scale genomic data.
ABSTRACT Although several hundred regions of the human genome harbor signals of positive natural selection, few of the relevant adaptive traits and variants have been elucidated. Using full-genome sequence variation from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project and the composite of multiple signals (CMS) test, we investigated 412 candidate signals and leveraged functional annotation, protein structure modeling, epigenetics, and association studies to identify and extensively annotate candidate causal variants. The resulting catalog provides a tractable list for experimental follow-up; it includes 35 high-scoring nonsynonymous variants, 59 variants associated with expression levels of a nearby coding gene or lincRNA, and numerous variants associated with susceptibility to infectious disease and other phenotypes. We experimentally characterized one candidate nonsynonymous variant in Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and show that it leads to altered NF-κB signaling in response to bacterial flagellin. PAPERFLICK:
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ABSTRACT: The bovine species have witnessed and played a major role in the drastic socio-economical changes that shaped our culture over the last 10,000 years. During this journey, cattle "hitchhiked" on human development and colonized the world, facing strong selective pressures such as dramatic environmental changes and disease challenge. Consequently, hundreds of specialized cattle breeds emerged and spread around the globe, making up a rich spectrum of genomic resources. Their DNA still carry the scars left from adapting to this wide range of conditions, and we are now empowered with data and analytical tools to track the milestones of past selection in their genomes. In this review paper, we provide a summary of the reconstructed demographic events that shaped cattle diversity, offer a critical synthesis of popular methodologies applied to the search for signatures of selection (SS) in genomic data, and give examples of recent SS studies in cattle. Then, we outline the potential and challenges of the application of SS analysis in cattle, and discuss the future directions in this field.Frontiers in Genetics 02/2015; 6:36. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00036
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ABSTRACT: Whole genome analysis in large samples from a single population is needed to provide adequate power to assess relative strengths of natural selection across different functional components of the genome. In this study, we analyzed next-generation sequencing data from 962 European Americans, and found that as expected approximately 60% of the top 1% of positive selection signals lie in intergenic regions, 33% in intronic regions, and slightly over 1% in coding regions. Several detailed functional annotation categories in intergenic regions showed statistically significant enrichment in positively selected loci when compared to the null distribution of the genomic span of ENCODE categories. There was a significant enrichment of purifying selection signals detected in enhancers, transcription factor binding sites, microRNAs and target sites, but not on lincRNA or piRNAs, suggesting different evolutionary constraints for these domains. Loci in "repressed or low activity regions" and loci near or overlapping the transcription start site were the most significantly over-represented annotations among the top 1% of signals for positive selection.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0121644. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121644 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome-wide scans for signals of natural selection in human populations have identified a large number of candidate loci that underlie local adaptations. This is surprising given the relatively short evolutionary time since the divergence of the human population. One hypothesis that has not been formally examined is whether and how the recent human evolution may have been shaped by co-selection in the context of complex molecular interactome. In this study, genome-wide signals of selection were scanned in East Asians, Europeans and Africans using 1000 Genome data, and subsequently mapped onto the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. We found that the candidate genes of recent positive selection localized significantly closer to each other on the PPI network than expected, revealing substantial clustering of selected genes. Furthermore, gene pairs of shorter PPI network distances showed higher similarities of their recent evolutionary paths than those further apart. Last, sub-networks enriched with recent co-selection signals were identified, which are substantially over-represented in biological pathways related to signal transduction, neurogenesis and immune function. These results provide the first genome-wide evidence for association of recent selection signals with the PPI network, shedding light on the potential mechanisms of recent co-selection in the human genome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.Genome Biology and Evolution 12/2014; 7(1). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evu270 · 4.53 Impact Factor