Biomarkers of endometriosis.

Department of Development and Regeneration, Sexual, Pelvic, Reproductive, and Family Studies, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.
Fertility and sterility (Impact Factor: 3.97). 02/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.01.097
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A noninvasive test for endometriosis would be useful for the early detection of endometriosis in symptomatic women who have pelvic pain and/or subfertility with normal ultrasound results. This would include nearly all cases of minimal-to-mild endometriosis, some cases of moderate-to-severe endometriosis without a clearly visible ovarian endometrioma, and cases with pelvic adhesions and/or other pelvic pathology that might benefit from surgery to improve pelvic pain and/or subfertility. This overview discusses the diagnostic performance of noninvasive or semi-invasive tests for endometriosis, including panels of known peripheral blood biomarkers, protein/peptide markers discovered by proteomics, miRNA, and endometrial nerve fiber density. Tests with high sensitivity and acceptable specificity have been developed; some have been validated in independent populations and are therefore promising. To make real progress, international agreement on biobank development is needed for standard operating procedures for the collection, treatment, storage, and analysis of tissue samples and for detailed clinical phenotyping of these samples. Furthermore, it is necessary to validate the diagnostic accuracy of any promising test prospectively in an independent symptomatic patient population with subfertility and/or pain without clear ultrasound evidence of endometriosis and with a clinical indication for surgery, divided into cases with laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis and controls with laparoscopically confirmed absence of endometriosis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the serum and peritoneal fluid cytokine profiles in infertile women with minimal/mild active endometriosis. Fifty-seven consecutive infertile women undergoing laparoscopy for unexplained infertility had peritoneal fluid and serum samples obtained at the time of laparoscopy. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), monocyte chemotatic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), soluble Fas (sFas), and soluble Fas Ligand (sFasL) in peritoneal fluid and serum were measured to compare the concentration in both biological fluids, in women who have minimal/mild red endometriosis using women with no endometriosis as controls. Peritoneal fluid levels of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 were significantly higher in the endometriosis group (P < 0.012, P = 0.003, and P = 0.015, respectively). There was no significant difference in the peritoneal fluid levels of IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, RANTES, VEGF, PDGF, sFas and sFasL in the two groups. Although serum levels of IL-8 were higher in women with endometriosis, the difference was not significant (P = 0.07). Serum levels of PDGF, IL-6, RANTES, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and sFas, were not significantly different in the two groups. The elevated levels of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-8 in peritoneal fluid but not serum may indicate the importance of local macrophage activating factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 09/2007; 33(4):490-5. · 0.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have proposed the measurement of CA 19-9 and IL-6 as an alternative to CA 125 as markers for endometriosis. This study was performed in order to verify the clinical value of serum CA 125, CA 19-9 and IL-6 levels, either by themselves or combined, in the detection of the disease. In a prospective cohort study, serum concentrations of CA 125, CA 19-9 and IL-6 were measured in a consecutive series of 80 women of reproductive age who underwent laparoscopy for benign gynaecological pathologies. Endometriosis was documented in 45 women (stage I-II in 14 cases and stage III-IV in 31 cases). Patients with endometriosis had significantly higher levels of CA 125 than controls [23.4 IU/ml (13.3-37.6) versus 11.4 IU/ml (9.1-18.5), P < 0.001)]. Conversely, women with and without the disease were shown to have similar levels of both IL-6 pg/ml [0.6 (undetectable-1.4) versus 1.0 pg/ml (0.4-1.9), P = 0.09] and CA 19-9 [9.8 IU/ml (4.5-20.8) versus 7.4 IU/ml (2.8-11.5), P = 0.11]. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve resulted in a statistically significant difference from the null hypothesis only for CA 125 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of CA 125 were 27 and 97% respectively and were higher than those related to CA 19-9 and IL-6. Concomitant use of the three dosages led to a sensitivity and a specificity of 42 and 71% respectively. The concomitant dosage of CA 125, CA 19-9 and IL-6 does not add significant information in respect to the CA 125 test alone in diagnosing either early or advanced stages of endometriosis.
    Human Reproduction 08/2004; 19(8):1871-6. · 4.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aberrant production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays pivotal roles in many pathological processes including tumorigenesis and endometriosis, although the underlying mechanism remains obscure. Herein we report evidence to demonstrate that COX-2 is distinctly regulated by IL-1beta in normal and endometriotic stroma. Ectopic endometriotic stromal cell is at least 100 times more sensitive to IL-1beta treatment, compared with its eutopic counterpart. Induction of COX-2 expression in normal endometrial stroma by IL-1beta is primary due to enhancement of COX-2 mRNA stability. In contrast, IL-1beta not only increases COX-2 mRNA stability but also up-regulates COX-2 promoter activity in ectopic endometriotic stroma. Induction of COX-2 promoter activity by IL-1beta is mediated via MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP-responding element binding protein. Promoter activity and EMSAs demonstrate that a cAMP response element site located at -571/-564 of COX-2 promoter is critical for IL-1beta-induced COX-2 gene expression. Our results indicate that elevation of COX-2 expression in endometriotic tissues may result from increased sensitivity to proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta, which is consistently present in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients. Distinct regulation of COX-2 gene by IL-1beta may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes such as cancer formation and endometriosis.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 02/2005; 90(1):286-95. · 6.43 Impact Factor


Available from
May 31, 2014