The impact of violence on health in low-to middle-income countries
ABSTRACT More than 90% of violence-related deaths occur in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), where the mortality rate due to violence is almost 2.5 times greater than in high-income countries. Over and above the substantial contribution of violence as a cause of death and physical injuries, victims of violence are also more vulnerable to a range of mental and physical health problems. Several studies describe the deleterious impact of different types of violence on a range of health outcomes, but no review has yet been undertaken that presents a composite overview of the current state of knowledge in LMICs. This paper reviews the scientific literature describing the nature, magnitude and impact of violence on health, describing the current state of violence-prevention policy developments within the global health agenda and highlighting the health consequences, disease burden and economic costs of violence. Although data are limited, the review indicates that costs relating to violence deplete health care budgets considerably and that scarce resources could be better used to address other health threats that hamper development.
- SourceAvailable from: Brett BowmanUniversity of the Witwatersrand.
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ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that a significant proportion of men who have been violent towards their partners desist from such violent behaviors; yet, research examining desistance from intimate partner violence (IPV) is lim- ited. This omission is surprising given that an understanding of desistance processes is required to inform evidence-based IPV interventions. In this critical review of the empirical literature, eligible studies included 15 publications, identified through electronic databases and hand searches of bibliographies that directly in- vestigated the cessation of physical violence against an intimate partner, by heterosexual men. No single the- ory was identified that explains desistance from IPV. However, empirical studies reveal that the severity and frequency of violence is associated with desistance, with those using moderate levels of violence being more likely to desist than those who engage in severe violence. Typology research suggests differences in individ- ual characteristics (e.g., low psychopathology and impulsivity) can distinguish desisters from persisters. In addition, the nature of the dyad within which the violence occurs is also influential in desistance processes. It is concluded that much more research is needed to inform practice and in particular to examine the role of protective factors in mitigating risk and enabling individuals to desist from IPV.Aggression and Violent Behavior 03/2013; 18:271-280. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.019
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ABSTRACT: Ample evidence exists that offenders eventually terminate their criminal careers, and this holds true for violent offenders. The causal mechanisms responsible for triggering and maintaining this process remain unclear; meaning that desistance from violence is poorly understood. This comprehensive review of the literature revealed that research in this area is hampered by definitional, operational, and measurement inconsistencies. Several of the conceptual frameworks used to explain desistance from delinquency have not been specifically applied in relation to violence. However, it was found that criminological enquiry suggests that informal social control (e.g., stable relationship and employment) play a role in desistance from violence and that theoretical frameworks which examine both internal and external change seem to show promise as an aid to understanding the desistance process. Psychological research has tended to focus on the role of risk and protective factors in relation to desistance but this, particularly protective factors, is currently under-researched. More knowledge needs to be assembled about how: (1) the mechanics of protective factors mitigate risk of future violence, and (2) how they play a role in the maintenance of violent free behaviors. Findings from criminology and psychology need to be expanded and integrated to extend our understanding of desistance from violence.Aggression and Violent Behavior 03/2013; 18:286-299. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.021