The impact of violence on health in low-to middle-income countries
More than 90% of violence-related deaths occur in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), where the mortality rate due to violence is almost 2.5 times greater than in high-income countries. Over and above the substantial contribution of violence as a cause of death and physical injuries, victims of violence are also more vulnerable to a range of mental and physical health problems. Several studies describe the deleterious impact of different types of violence on a range of health outcomes, but no review has yet been undertaken that presents a composite overview of the current state of knowledge in LMICs. This paper reviews the scientific literature describing the nature, magnitude and impact of violence on health, describing the current state of violence-prevention policy developments within the global health agenda and highlighting the health consequences, disease burden and economic costs of violence. Although data are limited, the review indicates that costs relating to violence deplete health care budgets considerably and that scarce resources could be better used to address other health threats that hamper development.
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Available from: Antonio Ponce De Leon
- "Although violence is a much bigger problem in low and middle-income countries13it is an increasing problem in high-income countries to e.g. England and Sweden.14,15 "
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ABSTRACT: Violence is a major public health problem. Both clinical and population based studies shows that violence against men and women has physical and psychological health consequences. However, elsewhere and in Sweden little is known of the effect of individual socioeconomic position (SEP) on the relation between violence and health outcomes.
This study aimed to assess the effect of individual SEP on the relation between violence and three health outcomes (general health, pain and anxiety) among women in Stockholm County.
The study used data from the Stockholm Public Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2006 for the Stockholm County Council by Statistic Sweden. 34 704 respondents answered the survey, the response rate was sixth one percent. Analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis in SPSS v.17.0.
Individual SEP increased the odds of reporting poor health outcomes among victimized women in Stockholm County. Regarding self-reported health women in low-SEP who reported victimization in the past twelve months had odds of 2,36 (95% CI 1.48-3.77) for the age group 18-29 years and 3.78 (95% CI 2.53-5.64) for the age group 30-44 years compared with women in high-SEP and non-victim. For pain the odds was 2,41 (95% CI 1,56-3,73) for the age group 18-29 years and 2,98 (95% CI 1,99-4,46) for women aged 30-44 years. Regarding anxiety the age group 18-29 years had odds of 2,53 (95% CI 1,58-4,03) and for the age group 30-44 years had odds of 3,87 (95% CI 2,55-5,87).
Results showed that individual SEP (measured by occupation) matters to the relationship between violence and health outcomes such as general self-reported health, pain and anxiety. Women in lower SEP and experienced victimization in the past twelve months had increased odds of reporting poorer self-rated health, pain and anxiety compared to those in higher SEP with no experience of victimization. However, further exploration of the relationship between poverty, individual SEP is needed using other Swedish population samples.
Journal of injury & violence research 05/2011; 4(2):87-95. DOI:10.5249/jivr.v4i2.122
Available from: Brett Bowman
University of the Witwatersrand.
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ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that a significant proportion of men who have been violent towards their partners desist from such violent behaviors; yet, research examining desistance from intimate partner violence (IPV) is lim- ited. This omission is surprising given that an understanding of desistance processes is required to inform evidence-based IPV interventions. In this critical review of the empirical literature, eligible studies included 15 publications, identified through electronic databases and hand searches of bibliographies that directly in- vestigated the cessation of physical violence against an intimate partner, by heterosexual men. No single the- ory was identified that explains desistance from IPV. However, empirical studies reveal that the severity and frequency of violence is associated with desistance, with those using moderate levels of violence being more likely to desist than those who engage in severe violence. Typology research suggests differences in individ- ual characteristics (e.g., low psychopathology and impulsivity) can distinguish desisters from persisters. In addition, the nature of the dyad within which the violence occurs is also influential in desistance processes. It is concluded that much more research is needed to inform practice and in particular to examine the role of protective factors in mitigating risk and enabling individuals to desist from IPV.
Aggression and Violent Behavior 03/2013; 18:271-280. DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.019 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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