The impact of violence on health in low- to middle-income countries.

University of Cape Town School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa.
International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion (Impact Factor: 0.67). 01/2009; 15(4):177-87. DOI: 10.1080/17457300802396487
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT More than 90% of violence-related deaths occur in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), where the mortality rate due to violence is almost 2.5 times greater than in high-income countries. Over and above the substantial contribution of violence as a cause of death and physical injuries, victims of violence are also more vulnerable to a range of mental and physical health problems. Several studies describe the deleterious impact of different types of violence on a range of health outcomes, but no review has yet been undertaken that presents a composite overview of the current state of knowledge in LMICs. This paper reviews the scientific literature describing the nature, magnitude and impact of violence on health, describing the current state of violence-prevention policy developments within the global health agenda and highlighting the health consequences, disease burden and economic costs of violence. Although data are limited, the review indicates that costs relating to violence deplete health care budgets considerably and that scarce resources could be better used to address other health threats that hamper development.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Violence is a major public health problem. Both clinical and population based studies shows that violence against men and women has physical and psychological health consequences. However, elsewhere and in Sweden little is known of the effect of individual socioeconomic position (SEP) on the relation between violence and health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the effect of individual SEP on the relation between violence and three health outcomes (general health, pain and anxiety) among women in Stockholm County. The study used data from the Stockholm Public Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2006 for the Stockholm County Council by Statistic Sweden. 34 704 respondents answered the survey, the response rate was sixth one percent. Analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis in SPSS v.17.0. Individual SEP increased the odds of reporting poor health outcomes among victimized women in Stockholm County. Regarding self-reported health women in low-SEP who reported victimization in the past twelve months had odds of 2,36 (95% CI 1.48-3.77) for the age group 18-29 years and 3.78 (95% CI 2.53-5.64) for the age group 30-44 years compared with women in high-SEP and non-victim. For pain the odds was 2,41 (95% CI 1,56-3,73) for the age group 18-29 years and 2,98 (95% CI 1,99-4,46) for women aged 30-44 years. Regarding anxiety the age group 18-29 years had odds of 2,53 (95% CI 1,58-4,03) and for the age group 30-44 years had odds of 3,87 (95% CI 2,55-5,87). Results showed that individual SEP (measured by occupation) matters to the relationship between violence and health outcomes such as general self-reported health, pain and anxiety. Women in lower SEP and experienced victimization in the past twelve months had increased odds of reporting poorer self-rated health, pain and anxiety compared to those in higher SEP with no experience of victimization. However, further exploration of the relationship between poverty, individual SEP is needed using other Swedish population samples.
    Journal of injury & violence research 05/2011; 4(2):87-95.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Political violence is a global phenomenon, especially in low- to middle-income countries. This phenomenon increasingly involves civilians. This situation is a priority in collective health, as it produces multiple and complex effects on physical and mental health, and human and social ecosystems. The objective of this article is to present the main tendencies that coexist in research and practice on the understanding of the effects of political violence on mental health. The biomedical approach of psychiatric trauma and the wider perspective of social sciences, which incorporate the collective dimension of these effects, are also taken into account. Methods: Review of research determines the relationship with political violence / collective violence and mental health in international databases and national documentation centers, academics and NGOs within the last decade of the twentieth century, and the first of this century under the headings of trauma, war, armed conflict and political violence. Results: The limitations of general explanations of psychiatric trauma in understanding the complex effects of political violence on mental health are shown. The constructs that incorporate social and collective dimensions increase this comprehension of these effects and knowledge of mental health, both conceptually as methodologically. Conclusions: In a political violence context it urgent to change attitudes about mental health. It is a way to overcome the biomedical, individualistic, and short term epidemiology, and to remove medication from mental health. This means acknowledging that people who experience the effects of political violence effects are not sick. They are powerful people who can transform and produce the life they dream of.
    Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría. 09/2013; 42(3):276-282.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.
    International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion 03/2011; 18(3):205-11. · 0.67 Impact Factor

Brett Bowman