Potential Nonpneumococcal Confounding of PCR-Based Determination of Serotype in Carriage

Respiratory Diseases Branch Division of Bacterial Diseases Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
Journal of clinical microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.99). 08/2012; 2012 Sep;50(9):3146-7(9). DOI: 10.1128/JCM.01505-12
Source: PubMed


Monitoring pneumococcal carriage serotype distributions is increasingly used to study pneumococcal biology, disease epidemiology, and vaccine impact

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    • "While the isolation-based and cmPCR data from C-NPs closely approximated results from our previous study (Carvalho et al., 2010), we found an unexpected number and range of serotype detections from cmPCR testing of A-NP/OPs in this population. Based on a combination of putative pneumococcal serotype-specific amplicon and real-time PCR pneumococcal detection data, we hypothesized that non-pneumococcal strains carrying homologs of pneumococcal serotype-specific loci were yielding false cmPCR-determined serotypes (Carvalho et al., 2012). Recent access to the original, stored NP and OP specimens has allowed us to demonstrate here that the abundance and diversity of A-NP/OP –derived cmPCR amplicons within this particular area is primarily due to the presence of diverse strains of oropharyngeal non-pneumococcal mitis group species. "
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    ABSTRACT: We performed culture-based and PCR-based tests for pneumococcal identification and serotyping from carriage specimens collected in rural and urban Kenya. Nasopharyngeal specimens from 237 healthy children <5 years old (C-NPs) and combined nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal specimens from 158 adults (A-NP/OPs, 118 HIV-positive) were assessed using pneumococcal isolation (following broth culture enrichment) with Quellung-based serotyping, real-time lytA-PCR, and conventional multiplexed PCR-serotyping (cmPCR). Culture-based testing from C-NPs, HIV-positive A-NP/OPs, and HIV-negative A-NP/OPs revealed 85.2%, 40.7%, and 12.5% pneumococcal carriage, respectively. In contrast, cmPCR serotypes were found in 93.2%, 98.3%, and 95.0% of these sets, respectively. Two of 16 lytA-negative C-NPs and 26 of 28 lytA-negative A-NP/OPs were cmPCR-positive for 1-10 serotypes (sts) or serogroups (sgs). A-NP/OPs averaged 5.5 cmPCR serotypes/serogroups (5.2 in HIV-positive, 7.1 in HIV-negative) and C-NPs averaged 1.5 cmPCR serotypes/serogroups. cmPCR serotypes/serogroups from lytA-negative A-NP/OPs included st2, st4, sg7F/7A, sg9N/9L, st10A, sg10F/10C/33C, st13, st17F, sg18C/18A/18B/18F, sg22F/22A, and st39. Nine strains of three non-pneumococcal species (S. oralis, S. mitis, and S. parasanguinis) (7 from A-OP, 1 from both A-NP and A-OP, and 1 from C-NP) were each cmPCR-positive for one of 7 serotypes/serogroups (st5, st13, sg15A/15F, sg10F/10C/33C, sg33F/33A/37, sg18C/18A/18B/18F, sg12F/12A/12B/ 44/46) with amplicons revealing 83.6-99.7% sequence identity to pneumococcal references. In total, 150 cmPCR amplicons from carriage specimens were sequenced, including 25 from lytA-negative specimens. Amplicon sequences derived from specimens yielding a pneumococcal isolate with the corresponding serotype were identical or highly conserved (>98.7%) with the reference cmPCR amplicon for the st, while cmPCR amplicons from lytA-negative specimens were generally more divergent. Separate testing of 56 A-OPs and 56 A-NPs revealed that ∼94% of the positive cmPCR results from A-NP/OPs were from OP microbiota. In contrast, A-NPs yielded >2-fold more pneumococcal isolates than A-OPs. Verified and suspected non-pneumococcal cmPCR serotypes/serogroups appeared to be relatively rare in C-NPs and A-NPs compared to A-OPs. Our findings indicate that non-pneumococcal species can confound serotype-specific PCR and other sequence-based assays due to evolutionarily conserved genes most likely involved in biosynthesis of surface polysaccharide structures.
    PeerJ 06/2013; 1(3):e97. DOI:10.7717/peerj.97 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen worldwide. Accurate sampling of S. pneumoniae carriage is central to surveillance studies before and following conjugate vaccination programmes to combat pneumococcal disease. Any bias introduced during sampling will affect downstream recovery and typing. Many variables exist for the method of collection and initial processing, which can make inter-laboratory or international comparisons of data complex. In February 2003, a World Health Organisation working group published a standard method for the detection of pneumococcal carriage for vaccine trials to reduce or eliminate variability. We sought to describe the variables associated with the sampling of S. pneumoniae from collection to storage in the context of the methods recommended by the WHO and those used in pneumococcal carriage studies since its publication. A search of published literature in the online PubMed database was performed on the 1st June 2012, to identify published studies that collected pneumococcal carriage isolates, conducted after the publication of the WHO standard method. After undertaking a systematic analysis of the literature, we show that a number of differences in pneumococcal sampling protocol continue to exist between studies since the WHO publication. The majority of studies sample from the nasopharynx, but the choice of swab and swab transport media is more variable between studies. At present there is insufficient experimental data that supports the optimal sensitivity of any standard method. This may have contributed to incomplete adoption of the primary stages of the WHO detection protocol, alongside pragmatic or logistical issues associated with study design. Consequently studies may not provide a true estimate of pneumococcal carriage. Optimal sampling of carriage could lead to improvements in downstream analysis and the evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine impact and extrapolation to pneumococcal disease control therefore further in depth comparisons would be of value.
    Vaccine 09/2012; 30(48). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.08.080 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed and validated a real-time PCR assay consisting of 7 triplexed reactions to identify 11 individual serotypes plus 10 small serogroups representing the majority of disease-causing isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. This assay targets the 13 serotypes included within the 13-valent conjugate vaccine and 8 additional key serotypes or serogroups. Advantages over other serotyping assays are described. The assay will be expanded to 40 serotypes/serogroups. We will provide periodic updates at our protocol web site.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2012; 51(2). DOI:10.1128/JCM.02927-12 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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