Binding of the long pentraxin PTX3 to factor H: interacting domains and function in the regulation of complement activation.
ABSTRACT The long pentraxin PTX3 is a multifunctional soluble molecule involved in inflammation and innate immunity. As an acute phase protein, PTX3 binds to the classical pathway complement protein C1q, limits tissue damage in inflammatory conditions by regulating apoptotic cell clearance, and plays a role in the phagocytosis of selected pathogens. This study was designed to investigate the interaction of PTX3 with factor H (FH), the main soluble alternative pathway regulatory protein. We report that PTX3 binds FH with an apparent K(d) of 1.1 x 10(-7) M, and define two binding sites for PTX3 on FH. The primary binding site is located on FH domains 19-20, which interact with the N-terminal domain of PTX3, while a secondary binding site on domain 7 binds the glycosylated PTX3 pentraxin domain. The FH Y402H polymorphism, which affects binding to the short pentraxin CRP, did not affect binding to PTX3. Surface-bound PTX3 enhances FH recruitment and iC3b deposition and PTX3-bound FH retains its activity as a cofactor for factor I-mediated C3b cleavage. Thus, our findings identify PTX3 as a unique FH ligand in that it can bind both of the two hot-spots of FH, namely SCR7 and SCR19-20 and indicate that PTX3 participates in the localization of functionally active FH.
Article: Identification of candidate susceptibility and resistance genes of mice infected with Streptococcus suis type 2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) is an important swine pathogen and zoonosis agent. A/J mice are significantly more susceptible than C57BL/6 (B6) mice to SS2 infection, but the genetic basis is largely unknown. Here, alterations in gene expression in SS2 (strain HA9801)-infected mice were identified using Illumina mouse BeadChips. Microarray analysis revealed 3,692 genes differentially expressed in peritoneal macrophages between A/J and B6 mice due to SS2 infection. Between SS2-infected A/J and control A/J mice, 2646 genes were differentially expressed (1469 upregulated; 1177 downregulated). Between SS2-infected B6 and control B6 mice, 1449 genes were differentially expressed (778 upregulated; 671 downregulated). These genes were analyzed for significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories and signaling pathways using the Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database to generate a signaling network. Upregulated genes in A/J and B6 mice were related to response to bacteria, immune response, positive regulation of B cell receptor signaling pathway, type I interferon biosynthesis, defense and inflammatory responses. Additionally, upregulated genes in SS2-infected B6 mice were involved in antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptides, peptide antigen stabilization, lymphocyte differentiation regulation, positive regulation of monocyte differentiation, antigen receptor-mediated signaling pathway and positive regulation of phagocytosis. Downregulated genes in SS2-infected B6 mice played roles in glycolysis, carbohydrate metabolic process, amino acid metabolism, behavior and muscle regulation. Microarray results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of 14 representative deregulated genes. Four genes differentially expressed between SS2-infected A/J and B6 mice, toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), tumor necrosis factor (Tnf), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) and pentraxin 3 (Ptx3), were previously implicated in the response to S. suis infection. This study identified candidate genes that may influence susceptibility or resistance to SS2 infection in A/J and B6 mice, providing further validation of these models and contributing to understanding of S. suis pathogenic mechanisms.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e32150. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble recognition molecule with multiple functions including innate immune defense against certain microbes and the clearance of apoptotic cells. PTX3 interacts with recognition molecules of the classical and lectin complement pathways and thus initiates complement activation. In addition, binding of PTX3 to the alternative complement pathway regulator factor H was shown. Here, we show that PTX3 binds to the classical and lectin pathway regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP). A PTX3-binding site was identified within short consensus repeats 1-3 of the C4BP α-chain. PTX3 did not interfere with the cofactor activity of C4BP in the fluid phase and C4BP maintained its complement regulatory activity when bound to PTX3 on surfaces. While C4BP and factor H did not compete for PTX3 binding, the interaction of C4BP with PTX3 was inhibited by C1q and by L-ficolin. PTX3 bound to human fibroblast- and endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrices and recruited functionally active C4BP to these surfaces. Whereas PTX3 enhanced the activation of the classical/lectin pathway and caused enhanced C3 deposition on extracellular matrix, deposition of terminal pathway components and the generation of the inflammatory mediator C5a were not increased. Furthermore, PTX3 enhanced the binding of C4BP to late apoptotic cells, which resulted in an increased rate of inactivation of cell surface bound C4b and a reduction in the deposition of C5b-9. Thus, in addition to complement activators, PTX3 interacts with complement inhibitors including C4BP. This balanced interaction on extracellular matrix and on apoptotic cells may prevent excessive local complement activation that would otherwise lead to inflammation and host tissue damage.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23991. · 4.09 Impact Factor