Hepatitis A is a major infectious disease epidemiologically associated with foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Molecular detection using real-time RT-PCR to detect the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in contaminated vegetables can be hindered by low-virus recoveries during the concentration process and by natural PCR inhibitors in vegetables. This study evaluated three virus concentration methods from vegetables: polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, ultrafiltration (UF), and immunomagnetic separation (IMS). UF was the most efficient concentration method, while PEG and IMS were very low for the recovery rate of HAV. These results demonstrate that UF is the most appropriate method for recovering HAV from contaminated vegetables and that this method combined with the real-time RT-PCR assay may be suitable for routine laboratory use.
"c o m / l o c a t e / i j f o o d m i c r o CEN ISO/TS 15216-parts 1 & 2 (ISO/TS, 15216-1, 2013; ISO/TS, 15216-2, 2013). The detection of enteric viruses in food is difficult due to the low level of viral contamination in food products and the presence of substances that can inhibit PCR amplification (Lee et al., 2012; Maunula et al., 2013; Suffredini et al., 2014). The use of appropriate controls (process control virus and external control RNA) should be consistently included whenever testing foods for viral contamination. "
"According to Scherer et al. (2010), the average recovery rates of NoV from lettuce and raspberry were 23 and 24 %, respectively. Lee et al. (2012) reported that the recovery rates for HAV were 0.65 and 0.7 % from inoculated lettuce and perilla leaf, respectively, as calculated using the IMS/RT-PCR method to detect HAV. HAV recovery rates from lettuce and perilla leaf were similar to those from oyster and mussel. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed shellfish. Among the viruses in these outbreaks, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV) have been increasingly reported as the most common food-borne pathogens. These viruses must be concentrated in tested samples in order to be detected. In this study, a method for the detection of NoV and HAV in shellfish using an immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) procedure combined with reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR was developed. The IMS/RT-PCR method was applied to investigate the recovery rates of HAV, NoV GI.1, and GII.4 from oyster and mussel. Based on IMS/RT-PCR results, recovery rates for HAV from oyster and mussel test samples were 2.4 and 1.1 %, respectively. The NoV GI.1 recovery rates from oyster and mussel samples were 4.9-9.2 % (mean 6.9 %) and 4.3-8.6 % (mean 6.2 %), respectively, and the NoV GII.4 recovery rates were 8.8 and 8.5 %, respectively. These results verified that HAV, NoV GI.1, and GII.4 can be detected in all the test samples using the IMS/RT-PCR method, although the three inoculated viruses were recovered with low efficiency. In conclusion, the IMS/RT-PCR method can be used to efficiently and rapidly detect viruses such as HAV and NoV in shellfish such as oyster and mussel.
"Also, Arenavirus has been detected in patients using a nested RT-PCR assay (Park et al., 1997). RT-PCR and real-time PCR methods were reported to detect hepatitis A (Hutson et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2012; Stals et al., 2013). Molecular biology techniques have been used for detection of the most common foodborne viruses like Norovirus and hepatitis A in shellfish, but none are usually available for other foods virus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foodborne pathogens comprise microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites that can be
transmitted by food and affect public health worldwide. The most common viruses transmitted via
food are hepatitis A virus and Norwalk-like caliciviruses. Also, the most common bacteria involved
in foodborne illnesses are Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp,
Escherichia coli O157:H7; and the most important parasites that can cause these conditions are
Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii,
Trichinella spiralis, Taenia saginata and/or solium, Entamoeba histolytica, Anisakis spp. and
Diphyllobothrium spp. Because of their eventual small number in the sample, their detection and
identification is not always easy. On the other hand, conventional methods like cultures are almost
labor intensive, time consuming and costly. Recently, molecular techniques have been developed
for rapid, sensitive and specific identification. The most common molecular methods are
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. In this article, the sensitive and specific
molecular tests for routine detection and identification of foodborne pathogens are reviewed.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.