Comparative Analysis of Viral Concentration Methods for Detecting the HAV Genome Using Real-Time RT-PCR Amplification.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis A is a major infectious disease epidemiologically associated with foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Molecular detection using real-time RT-PCR to detect the hepatitis A virus (HAV) in contaminated vegetables can be hindered by low-virus recoveries during the concentration process and by natural PCR inhibitors in vegetables. This study evaluated three virus concentration methods from vegetables: polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation, ultrafiltration (UF), and immunomagnetic separation (IMS). UF was the most efficient concentration method, while PEG and IMS were very low for the recovery rate of HAV. These results demonstrate that UF is the most appropriate method for recovering HAV from contaminated vegetables and that this method combined with the real-time RT-PCR assay may be suitable for routine laboratory use.
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ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (genogroup I (NoV GI) and genogroup II (NoV GII)) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV) are frequently involved in foodborne infections worldwide. They are mainly transmitted via the fecal-oral route, direct person-to-person contact or consumption of contaminated water and foods. In food virology, detection methods are currently based on identifying viral genomes using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). One of the general requirements for detecting these viruses in food involves the use of a process control virus to monitor the quality of the entire viral extraction procedure as described in the ISO/TS 15216-1 and 15216-2 standards published in 2013. The selected process control virus should have similar morphological and physicochemical properties as the screened pathogenic virus and thus have the potential to provide comparable extraction efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine which virus should be used for process control, murine norovirus (MNV-1) or Mengovirus, when testing for the presence of HAV, NoV GI and NoV GII in bottled water, lettuce and semi-dried tomatoes. Food samples were spiked with HAV, NoV GI or NoV GII alone or in the presence of MNV-1 or Mengovirus. Recovery rates of each pathogenic virus were compared to those of both process control viruses using a multiple comparison procedure. Neither process control virus influenced the recovery of pathogenic virus regardless of the type of food matrix. MNV-1 was the most appropriate virus for validating the detection of HAV and NoV GII in all three food matrices as well as NoV GI in lettuce. Mengovirus proved to be the most appropriate control for NoV GI detection in bottled water and semi-dried tomatoes. The process control virus is essential for validating viral detection in food and the choice of virus depends on food type and the screened pathogenic virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.International Journal of Food Microbiology 02/2015; 202:57-65. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.02.029 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Outbreaks of viral diseases are frequently associated with the consumption of minimally processed shellfish. Among the viruses in these outbreaks, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV) have been increasingly reported as the most common food-borne pathogens. These viruses must be concentrated in tested samples in order to be detected. In this study, a method for the detection of NoV and HAV in shellfish using an immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) procedure combined with reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR was developed. The IMS/RT-PCR method was applied to investigate the recovery rates of HAV, NoV GI.1, and GII.4 from oyster and mussel. Based on IMS/RT-PCR results, recovery rates for HAV from oyster and mussel test samples were 2.4 and 1.1 %, respectively. The NoV GI.1 recovery rates from oyster and mussel samples were 4.9-9.2 % (mean 6.9 %) and 4.3-8.6 % (mean 6.2 %), respectively, and the NoV GII.4 recovery rates were 8.8 and 8.5 %, respectively. These results verified that HAV, NoV GI.1, and GII.4 can be detected in all the test samples using the IMS/RT-PCR method, although the three inoculated viruses were recovered with low efficiency. In conclusion, the IMS/RT-PCR method can be used to efficiently and rapidly detect viruses such as HAV and NoV in shellfish such as oyster and mussel.Food and Environmental Virology 06/2014; 6(4). DOI:10.1007/s12560-014-9156-2 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large percentage of foodborne outbreaks are caused by viruses, and outbreaks associated with fresh produce have increased over the past decade within the United States. Virus recovery from food is of the utmost importance in determining the cause of viral outbreaks. While there are many experimental studies investigating viruses on fruits and vegetables, there is a lack of standard techniques concerning the initial inoculation and recovery of viruses. This study investigates the efficiency of methodology in the recovery of three viruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV), Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus, on three different produce surfaces (lettuce, green onions, and strawberries). To do so, three common times of virus inoculation were examined (0.5, 4, and 12 h) along with two routes of inoculation (immersion and spot inoculation), and then two recovery methods were compared (physical removal and chemical extraction/blending) utilizing three different recovery eluents (2% media, beef extract, and phosphate-buffered saline). Results suggested that incubation time did not significantly affect the survival of the viruses on green onions and strawberries, while a significant decrease (p <or= 0.05) was observed after 4 or 12 h of incubation on lettuce. In general, media containing 2% fetal bovine serum had more efficient recovery of the three viruses, and spot inoculation was observed to be more efficient than inoculation by immersion. A significantly higher percent recovery was observed for HAV compared to the other viruses on lettuce and green onions. Comparison of virus recovery by physical removal or chemical extraction/blending showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); however, the percent recovery was greater by extraction/blending methodology.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 12/2008; 5(6):819-25. DOI:10.1089/fpd.2008.0145 · 2.09 Impact Factor