Physiological release of endogenous tau is stimulated by neuronal activity
ABSTRACT Propagation of tau pathology is linked with progressive neurodegeneration, but the mechanism underlying trans-synaptic spread of tau is unknown. We show that stimulation of neuronal activity, or AMPA receptor activation, induces tau release from healthy, mature cortical neurons. Notably, phosphorylation of extracellular tau appears reduced in comparison with intracellular tau. We also find that AMPA-induced release of tau is calcium-dependent. Blocking pre-synaptic vesicle release by tetanus toxin and inhibiting neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin both significantly impair AMPA-mediated tau release. Tau secretion is therefore a regulatable process, dysregulation of which could lead to the spread of tau pathology in disease.
SourceAvailable from: Deglon NicoleAlzheimer's and Dementia 07/2013; 9(4):P142. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.04.090 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Microtubule associated protein tau is the major component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases. Tau mutations are associated with frontotemperal dementia with parkinsonism on chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). rTg4510 mice overexpress human tau carrying the P301L FTDP-17 mutation and develop robust NFT-like pathology at 4–5 months of age. The current study is aimed at characterizing the rTg4510 mice to better understand the genesis of tau pathology and to better enable the use of this model in drug discovery efforts targeting tau pathology. Results Using a panel of immunoassays, we analyzed the age-dependent formation of pathological tau in rTg4510 mice and our data revealed a steady age-dependent accumulation of pathological tau in the insoluble fraction of brain homogenates. The pathological tau was associated with multiple post-translational modifications including aggregation, phosphorylation at a wide variety of sites, acetylation, ubiquitination and nitration. The change of most tau species reached statistical significance at the age of 16 weeks. There was a strong correlation between the different post-translationally modified tau species in this heterogeneous pool of pathological tau. Total tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) displayed a multiphasic temporal profile distinct from the steady accumulation of pathological tau in the brain. Female rTg4510 mice displayed significantly more aggressive accumulation of pathological tau in the brain and elevation of total tau in CSF than their male littermates. Conclusion The immunoassays described here were used to generate the most comprehensive description of the changes in various tau species across the lifespan of the rTg4510 mouse model. The data indicate that development of tauopathy in rTg4510 mice involves the accumulation of a pool of pathological tau that carries multiple post-translational modifications, a process that can be detected well before the histological detection of NFTs. Therapeutic treatment targeting tau should therefore aim to reduce all tau species associated with the pathological tau pool rather than reduce specific post-translational modifications. There is still much to learn about CSF tau in physiological and pathological processes in order to use it as a translational biomarker in drug discovery. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13024-015-0011-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Molecular Neurodegeneration 03/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/s13024-015-0011-1 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) are largely restricted to the entorhinal cortex and medial temporal lobe. At later stages, when clinical symptoms generally occur, NFT involve widespread limbic and association cortices. At this point in the disease, amyloid plaques are also abundantly distributed in the cortex. This observation from human neuropathological studies led us to pose two alternative hypotheses: that amyloid in the cortex is permissive for the spread of tangles from the medial temporal lobe, or that these are co-occurring but not causally related events simply reflecting progression of AD pathology. We now directly test the hypothesis that cortical amyloid acts as an accelerant for spreading of tangles beyond the medial temporal lobe. We crossed rTgTauEC transgenic mice that demonstrate spread of tau from entorhinal cortex to other brain structures at advanced age with APP/PS1 mice, and examined mice with either NFTs, amyloid pathology, or both. We show that concurrent amyloid deposition in the cortex 1) leads to a dramatic increase in the speed of tau propagation and an extraordinary increase in the spread of tau to distal brain regions, and 2) significantly increases tau-induced neuronal loss. These data strongly support the hypothesis that cortical amyloid accelerates the spread of tangles throughout the cortex and amplifies tangle-associated neural system failure in AD.01/2015; 3(1):14. DOI:10.1186/s40478-015-0199-x