aTorrey Pines Institute of Molecular Studies, Port St Lucie, Florida bDepartment of Psychology, Northeastern University cDepartment of Psychology, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts dDepartment of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.
Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling to phospholipase C β3 has been shown to potentiate morphine-mediated antinociception while attenuating the development of tolerance and dependence in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Gβγ-subunit inhibition on antinociception and other pharmacological effects, such as respiratory depression, constipation, and hyperlocomotion, mediated by the μ-opioid receptor. The Gβγ-subunit inhibitor, gallein, was administered to C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injection before morphine, and data were compared with mice treated with vehicle, morphine, or gallein alone. Morphine-induced antinociception was measured using the 55°C warm-water tail-withdrawal test. Pretreatment with gallein produced a dose-dependent potentiation of morphine-mediated antinociception, producing up to a 10-fold leftward shift in the morphine dose-response curve and extending the duration of antinociception induced by a single dose of morphine. Gallein pretreatment also prevented acute antinociceptive tolerance induced by morphine. In contrast, the dose-dependent respiratory depression and hyperlocomotion induced by morphine were not potentiated by gallein pretreatment. Similarly, gallein pretreatment did not potentiate morphine-conditioned place preference responses or morphine-induced constipation, as measured as a reduction in excreta. These results suggest that selectively inhibiting Gβγ-mediated signaling may selectively increase μ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception without matching increases in adverse physiological effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-sixth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2013 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior, and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia; stress and social status; tolerance and dependence; learning and memory; eating and drinking; alcohol and drugs of abuse; sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology; mental illness and mood; seizures and neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity and neurophysiology; general activity and locomotion; gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions; cardiovascular responses; respiration and thermoregulation; and immunological responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of post-traumatic stress disorders are notably resistant to treatment. We hypothesized that the pharmacological disruption of memories activated during reconsolidation might reverse established stress-induced increases in depression-like behaviors and cocaine reward. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to repeated social defeat stress (SDS), and examined for time spent immobile in a subsequent forced swim test (FST). An additional set of SDS-exposed mice were place-conditioned with cocaine, and tested for cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). All stress-exposed mice were then subjected to a single additional trial of SDS while under the influence of propranolol or cycloheximide to disrupt memory reconsolidation, then given one additional FST or CPP test the next day. Mice subjected to repeated SDS subsequently demonstrated increases in time spent immobile in the FST or in the cocaine-paired chamber. Vehicle-treatment followed by additional SDS exposure did not alter these behaviors, but propranolol or cycloheximide treatment reversed each of the potentiated responses in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these results demonstrate that while repeated exposure to a social defeat stressor subsequently increased depression-like behavior and cocaine-CPP, disruption of traumatic memories made labile by re-exposure to SDS during reconsolidation may have therapeutic value in the treatment of established post-traumatic stress disorder-related behaviors.
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