Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling potentiates morphine-induced antinociception but not respiratory depression, constipation, locomotion, and reward.
ABSTRACT Inhibition of Gβγ-subunit signaling to phospholipase C β3 has been shown to potentiate morphine-mediated antinociception while attenuating the development of tolerance and dependence in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Gβγ-subunit inhibition on antinociception and other pharmacological effects, such as respiratory depression, constipation, and hyperlocomotion, mediated by the μ-opioid receptor. The Gβγ-subunit inhibitor, gallein, was administered to C57BL/6J mice by intraperitoneal injection before morphine, and data were compared with mice treated with vehicle, morphine, or gallein alone. Morphine-induced antinociception was measured using the 55°C warm-water tail-withdrawal test. Pretreatment with gallein produced a dose-dependent potentiation of morphine-mediated antinociception, producing up to a 10-fold leftward shift in the morphine dose-response curve and extending the duration of antinociception induced by a single dose of morphine. Gallein pretreatment also prevented acute antinociceptive tolerance induced by morphine. In contrast, the dose-dependent respiratory depression and hyperlocomotion induced by morphine were not potentiated by gallein pretreatment. Similarly, gallein pretreatment did not potentiate morphine-conditioned place preference responses or morphine-induced constipation, as measured as a reduction in excreta. These results suggest that selectively inhibiting Gβγ-mediated signaling may selectively increase μ-opioid receptor-mediated antinociception without matching increases in adverse physiological effects.
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ABSTRACT: Maladaptive behavioral responses characteristic of post-traumatic stress disorders are notably resistant to treatment. We hypothesized that the pharmacological disruption of memories activated during reconsolidation might reverse established stress-induced increases in depression-like behaviors and cocaine reward. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to repeated social defeat stress (SDS), and examined for time spent immobile in a subsequent forced swim test (FST). An additional set of SDS-exposed mice were place-conditioned with cocaine, and tested for cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). All stress-exposed mice were then subjected to a single additional trial of SDS while under the influence of propranolol or cycloheximide to disrupt memory reconsolidation, then given one additional FST or CPP test the next day. Mice subjected to repeated SDS subsequently demonstrated increases in time spent immobile in the FST or in the cocaine-paired chamber. Vehicle-treatment followed by additional SDS exposure did not alter these behaviors, but propranolol or cycloheximide treatment reversed each of the potentiated responses in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these results demonstrate that while repeated exposure to a social defeat stressor subsequently increased depression-like behavior and cocaine-CPP, disruption of traumatic memories made labile by re-exposure to SDS during reconsolidation may have therapeutic value in the treatment of established post-traumatic stress disorder-related behaviors.Behavioural Pharmacology 09/2014; 25(5 and 6):599-608. DOI:10.1097/FBP.0000000000000074 · 2.19 Impact Factor