Tolerance of the human kidney to ischemia is controversial. Here, we prospectively studied the renal response to clamp ischemia and reperfusion in humans, including changes in putative biomarkers of AKI. We performed renal biopsies before, during, and after surgically induced renal clamp ischemia in 40 patients undergoing partial nephrectomy. Ischemia duration was >30 minutes in 82.5% of patients. There was a mild, transient increase in serum creatinine, but serum cystatin C remained stable. Renal functional changes did not correlate with ischemia duration. Renal structural changes were much less severe than observed in animal models that used similar durations of ischemia. Other biomarkers were only mildly elevated and did not correlate with renal function or ischemia duration. In summary, these data suggest that human kidneys can safely tolerate 30-60 minutes of controlled clamp ischemia with only mild structural changes and no acute functional loss.
"Nevertheless, the significance of the effect of ischemia type and duration on long-term renal function (RF) has been questioned. In fact, some investigators suggest that the human kidney is extremely tolerant to ischemic insults , whereas others report that the amount of preserved healthy renal parenchyma may supersede ischemia as the primary predictor of RF after NSS  . "
"Mitochondria of kidney proximal tubules figure prominently in the development of acute kidney injury via their contributions to compromised energetics –, by generation of reactive oxygen species that induce both damaging and protective events including sustained upregulation of proinflammatory processes , as central mediators of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis , and as targets of autophagy . Recent observations during controlled clinical ischemia/reperfusion illustrate their involvement in human acute kidney injury . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation develop a nonesterified fatty acid-induced energetic deficit characterized by persistent partial mitochondrial deenergization that can be prevented and reversed by citric acid cycle substrates. To further assess the role of competition between fatty acids and substrates on inner membrane substrate carriers in the deenergization and the contribution to deenergization of fatty acid effects on respiratory function, digitonin-permeabilized rabbit and mouse tubules were studied using either addition of exogenous oleate after control normoxic incubation or increases of endogenous fatty acids produced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The results demonstrated major effects of matrix oxaloacetate accumulation on succinate-supported energization and respiration and their modification by fatty acids. Improvements of energization in the presence of fatty acids by glutamate were shown to result predominantly from lowering matrix oxaloacetate rather than from amelioration of transmembrane cycling of fatty acids and uncoupling. Mouse tubules had 2.5 fold higher rates of succinate utilization, which resulted in stronger effects of oxaloacetate accumulation than rabbit tubules. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced respiratory inhibition that was more severe for complex I-dependent substrates. Fatty acids themselves did not acutely contribute to this respiratory inhibition, but lowering them during 60 min. reoxygenation to allow recovery of ATP during that period alleviated it. These data clarify the basis for the nonesterified fatty acid-induced mitochondrial energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules that impairs structural and functional recovery and provide insight into interactions that need to be considered in the design of substrate-based interventions to improve mitochondrial function.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94584. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094584 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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