Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses.
ABSTRACT In most countries, people who have a low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor or marginalised communities have a higher risk of dying from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) than do more advantaged groups and communities. Smoking rates, blood pressure, and several other NCD risk factors are often higher in groups with low socioeconomic status than in those with high socioeconomic status; the social gradient also depends on the country's stage of economic development, cultural factors, and social and health policies. Social inequalities in risk factors account for more than half of inequalities in major NCDs, especially for cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. People in low-income countries and those with low socioeconomic status also have worse access to health care for timely diagnosis and treatment of NCDs than do those in high-income countries or those with higher socioeconomic status. Reduction of NCDs in disadvantaged groups is necessary to achieve substantial decreases in the total NCD burden, making them mutually reinforcing priorities. Effective actions to reduce NCD inequalities include equitable early childhood development programmes and education; removal of barriers to secure employment in disadvantaged groups; comprehensive strategies for tobacco and alcohol control and for dietary salt reduction that target low socioeconomic status groups; universal, financially and physically accessible, high-quality primary care for delivery of preventive interventions and for early detection and treatment of NCDs; and universal insurance and other mechanisms to remove financial barriers to health care.
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ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic factor is a determinant of health may contribute to diabetes. We conducted a systematic review to summarizing evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and diabetes in Iranian population. We systematically searched international databeses; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iranmedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID) to retrieve relevant articles to socioeconomic factors and diabetes without limitation on time. All identified articles were screened, quality assessed and data extracted by two authors independently. From 74 retrieved articles, 15 cases were relevant. We found increased diabetes prevalence among female sex, over 50 years' old age, illiterate population, retired status, unemployed, urban residents, and low economic status. There was a negative association between social capital and diabetes control. Diabetes complications were more frequent in upper age group, higher education levels and low income populations. Socioeconomic factors were associated with diabetes that leads to inequality. Improving modifiable factors through priority based interventions helps to diabetes prevention and control.01/2015; 14:8. DOI:10.1186/s40200-015-0135-4
Article: Noncommunicable Diseases[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), long considered diseases of little significance to global health, represent the greatest threat to economic development and human health. The main NCDs-diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory disease-are the world's number one killer and bear the greatest burden on the poor. On September 19-20, 2011, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) convened a high-level meeting (HLM) on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases. The only other HLM held on a health issue in the past had been in 2001 for HIV/AIDS and resulted in ambitious targets, global surveillance, and billions of dollars in aid. The 2011 HLM for NCDs did not measure up to the previous meeting in funding, targets, or advocacy but gave birth to a series of commitments in the form of a political declaration. In this article, we discuss the extent to which NCD is effecting the global population, what has and has not transpired since the 2011 HLM, and what lies ahead if we are to successfully tackle this growing burden of disease before it grows beyond our reach. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Seminars in Reproductive Medicine 01/2015; 33(1):35-40. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1395277 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes mellitus among the adult population in Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2011 nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). The BDHS sample is comprised of 7,786 adults aged 35 years or older. The primary outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, diagnosis, treatment, and control of diabetes. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors for diabetes awareness. Overall, age-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 9.2%. Among subjects with diabetes, 41.2% were aware of their condition, 36.9% were treated, and 14.2% controlled their condition. A significant inequality in diabetes management was found from poor to wealthy households: 18.2% to 63.2% (awareness), 15.8% to 56.6% (treatment), and 8.2% to 18.4% (control). Multilevel models suggested that participants who had a lower education and lower economic condition were less likely to be aware of their diabetes. Poor management was observed among non-educated, low-income groups, and those who lived in the northwestern region. Diabetes has become a national health concern in Bangladesh; however, treatment and control are quite low. Improving detection, awareness, and treatment strategies is urgently needed to prevent the growing burden associated with diabetes.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118365 · 3.53 Impact Factor