Synthesis of CuInS2, CuInSe2, and Cu(In xGa1-x)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal "inks" for printable photovoltaics

Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute and Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1062, USA.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 01/2009; 130(49):16770-7. DOI: 10.1021/ja805845q
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chalcopyrite copper indium sulfide (CuInS2) and copper indium gallium selenide (Cu(InxGa(1-x))-Se2; CIGS) nanocrystals ranging from approximately 5 to approximately 25 nm in diameter were synthesized by arrested precipitation in solution. The In/Ga ratio in the CIGS nanocrystals could be controlled by varying the In/Ga reactant ratio in the reaction, and the optical properties of the CulnS2 and CIGS nanocrystals correspond to those of the respective bulk materials. Using methods developed to produce uniform, crack-free micrometer-thick films, CulnSe2 nanocrystals were tested in prototype photovoltaic devices. As a proof-of-concept, the nanocrystal-based devices exhibited a reproducible photovoltaic response.

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    • "The proposed method involved relatively low temperatures. Compared to other procedures for synthesizing CZTSe nanocrystals (NCs) [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26], the investigated method, which involved just one heating step, was simpler and more economical. Because of the double amine groups in polyetheramine, the lowcost source materials for the elements Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se could be readily chelated and transformed into ternary and quaternary compounds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Copper–zinc–tin–selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, CZTSe) nanocrystals that do not contain any toxic elements and are 20–25 nm in size are synthesized through a process involving reactions of the elemental sources in a polyetheramine solution. By controlling the Zn/Sn ratio, both n-type and p-type CZTSe nanocrystals could be synthesized. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of electrodes formed using inks containing n-type and p-type CZTSe nanocrystals are compared. An aqueous solution of NaCl is used as the electrolyte. A PEC cell based on an n-type CZTSe photoanode exhibits an efficiency, ηc, of 2.81%, while a p-type cell exhibits ηc of 0.42%. The flat band potentials of the n-type and p-type CZTSe photoanodes in 1 M NaCl are −0.55 and 0.48 V, respectively. Finally, the net carrier concentrations of the n-type and p-type CZTSe photoanodes, calculated from their Mott–Schottky plots, are 3.38 × 1018 and 2.73 × 1018 cm−3, respectively.
    Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 03/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jece.2014.11.018
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    • "Thus, it is of very importance to synthesize the CIS NCs with their size smaller than 10 nm. So far, CIS has motivated the development of many synthetic approaches including a solvothermal method [18-21], a precursor decomposition method (thermolysis) [22,23,31], photochemical decomposition [24], and hot injection techniques [25-30,32]. "
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    Nanoscale Research Letters 02/2014; 9(1):78. DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-9-78 · 2.78 Impact Factor
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    • "Nanoparticles of CuInSe 2 were separated after precipitation with methanol . The same InCl3 and CuCl powders were dissolved either in oleylamine [8] [9] or using alkanethiol as ligand and octadecene as noncoordinating solvent [11], different shapes and sizes of CISe nanoparticles can be obtained by heating the solvent at different temperatures and time periods. A rather different approach [12] is the use of a stoichiometric mixture of selenium, CuCl 2 Á 2H 2 O, and InCl 3 Á 4H 2 O. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chalcopyrite of copper indium gallium selenium (Cu(InxGa1−x)Se2; CIGS) nanoparticles for solar cell materials have been successfully synthesized by a relatively simple and convenient method, i.e., a modified polyol route. The In/Ga ratio in the CIGS nanocrystals can be controlled by varying the In/Ga ratio in the reaction, and the optical properties of the CIGS nanocrystals correspond to those of the bulk materials. The use of reactants, CuCl, InCl3, GaCl3 and Se powders, in a three-neck flask with tetraethylene glycol as a solvent, spherical CIGS nanoparticles with diameter in the range of 40–100 nm can be obtained at temperatures in the range of 200–280 °C. Incorporation of gallium into the CuInSe2 compound requires a much higher reaction temperature for the formation of the CIGS nanoparticles. The characteristics and average sizes of these nanoparticles are analyzed with sophisticated instruments, such as SEM, TEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction pattern, and XRD.
    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 03/2012; 98:404–408. DOI:10.1016/j.solmat.2011.11.044 · 5.34 Impact Factor
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