A Sensory-Labeled Line for Cold: TRPM8-Expressing Sensory Neurons Define the Cellular Basis for Cold, Cold Pain, and Cooling-Mediated Analgesia
ABSTRACT Many primary sensory neurons are polymodal, responding to multiple stimulus modalities (chemical, thermal, or mechanical), yet each modality is recognized differently. Although polymodality implies that stimulus encoding occurs in higher centers, such as the spinal cord or brain, recent sensory neuron ablation studies find that behavioral responses to different modalities require distinct subpopulations, suggesting the existence of modality-specific labeled lines at the level of the sensory afferent. Here we provide evidence that neurons expressing TRPM8, a cold- and menthol-gated channel required for normal cold responses in mammals, represents a labeled line solely for cold sensation. We examined the behavioral significance of conditionally ablating TRPM8-expressing neurons in adult mice, finding that, like animals lacking TRPM8 channels (Trpm8(-/-)), animals depleted of TRPM8 neurons ("ablated") are insensitive to cool to painfully cold temperatures. Ablated animals showed little aversion to noxious cold and did not distinguish between cold and a preferred warm temperature, a phenotype more profound than that of Trpm8(-/-) mice which exhibit only partial cold-avoidance and -preference behaviors. In addition to acute responses, cold pain associated with inflammation and nerve injury was significantly attenuated in ablated and Trpm8(-/-) mice. Moreover, cooling-induced analgesia after nerve injury was abolished in both genotypes. Last, heat, mechanical, and proprioceptive behaviors were normal in ablated mice, demonstrating that TRPM8 neurons are dispensable for other somatosensory modalities. Together, these data show that, although some limited cold sensitivity remains in Trpm8(-/-) mice, TRPM8 neurons are required for the breadth of behavioral responses evoked by cold temperatures.
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ABSTRACT: TRPM8 has been implicated in pain and migraine based on dorsal root- and trigeminal ganglion-enriched expression, upregulation in preclinical models of pain, knockout mouse studies, and human genetics. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential in pain of AMG2850 ((R)-8-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-((S)-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-1,7-naphthyridine-7(8H)-carboxamide), a small molecule antagonist of TRPM8 by in vitro and in vivo characterization. AMG2850 is potent in vitro at rat TRPM8 (IC90 against icilin activation of 204 ± 28 nM), highly selective (>100-fold IC90 over TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels), and orally bioavailable (F po > 40 %). When tested in a skin-nerve preparation, AMG2850 blocked menthol-induced action potentials but not mechanical activation in C fibers. AMG2850 exhibited significant target coverage in vivo in a TRPM8-mediated icilin-induced wet-dog shake (WDS) model in rats (at 10 mg/kg p.o.). However, AMG2850 did not produce a significant therapeutic effect in rat models of inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivity or neuropathic tactile allodynia at doses up to 100 mg/kg. The lack of efficacy suggests that either TRPM8 does not play a role in mediating pain in these models or that a higher level of target coverage is required. The potential of TRPM8 antagonists as migraine therapeutics is yet to be determined.Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(4). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1090-9 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nerve injury induces a state of prolonged thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in the innervated area, causing distress in affected individuals. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity is partially due to increased activity and thereby sustained release of neurotransmitters from the injured fibers. Glutamate, a prominent neurotransmitter in primary afferents, plays a major role in development of hypersensitivity. Glutamate is packed in vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) to enable controlled release upon depolarization. While a role for peripheral VGLUTs in nerve injury-induced pain is established, their contribution in specific peripheral neuronal populations is unresolved. We investigated the role of VGLUT2, expressed by transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV1) fibers, in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Our data shows that removal of Vglut2 from Trpv1-Cre neurons using transgenic mice abolished both heat and punctuate hyperalgesia associated with nerve injury. In contrast, the development of cold hypersensitivity after nerve injury was unaltered. Here, we show that, VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission from Trpv1-Cre neurons selectively mediates heat and mechanical hypersensitivity associated with nerve injury. Our data clarifies the role of the Trpv1-Cre population and the dependence of VGLUT2-mediated glutamatergic transmission in nerve injury-induced hyperalgesia.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0116568. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116568 · 3.53 Impact Factor