The Efficacy of Afamelanotide and Narrowband UV-B Phototherapy for Repigmentation of Vitiligo
ABSTRACT Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented patches of skin due to loss of cutaneous melanocytes. Many recent studies have demonstrated defects in the melanocortin system in patients with vitiligo, including decreased circulating and lesional skin levels of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Afamelanotide is a potent and longer-lasting synthetic analogue of naturally occurring α-MSH.
We describe the preliminary results of 4 patients with generalized vitiligo who developed repigmentation using afamelanotide in combination with narrowband UV-B (NB-UV-B) phototherapy. Patients were treated 3 times weekly with NB-UV-B and starting in the second month received a series of 4 monthly implants containing 16 mg of afamelanotide. Afamelanotide induced faster and deeper repigmentation in each case. All patients experienced follicular and confluent areas of repigmentation within 2 days to 4 weeks after the initial implant, which progressed significantly throughout treatment. All patients experienced diffuse hyperpigmentation.
We propose that afamelanotide represents a novel and potentially effective treatment for vitiligo. The combined therapy of NB-UV-B and afamelanotide appears to promote melanoblast differentiation, proliferation, and eumelanogenesis. Further studies are necessary to confirm these observations.
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ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is a disorder of pigmentation affecting about 1% of the global population. It is a psychologically devastating disease with suboptimal treatment options. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy has become a first-line choice for treating generalized disease. In recent years, topical calcineurin inhibitors, vitamin D analogues, antioxidant agents and other therapies have been combined with NB-UVB to improve its efficacy. This article will address what is known about the mechanisms of action of these treatments and how they may complement NB-UVB on a cellular level, as well as offer a comprehensive, evidence-based review of clinical outcomes with combination therapies.Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 07/2014; DOI:10.1111/jdv.12619 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we isolated scopoletin from Cirsium setidens Nakai (Compositae) and tested its effects on melanogenesis. Scopoletin was not toxic to cells at concentrations less than 50 µM and increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. As melanin synthesis increased, scopoletin stimulated the total tyrosinase activity, the rate-limiting enzyme of melanogenesis. In a cell-free system, however, scopoletin did not increase tyrosinase activity, indicating that scopoletin is not a direct activator of tyrosinase. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that scopoletin stimulated the production of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase expression via cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, preclinical and clinical studies are needed to assess the use of scopoletin for the treatment of vitiligo.Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 08/2014; 18(4):307-11. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2014.18.4.307 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an unprecedented effort in the field of vitiligo, a global consensus resulted on a suggested new classification protocol for the disease. The main histopathological finding in vitiligo is the total absence of functioning melanocytes in the lesions, while the inflammatory cells most commonly found on the edges of the lesions are CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Physical and pharmacological treatment strategies aim to control the autoimmune damage and stimulate melanocyte migration from the unaffected edges of lesions and the outer hair follicle root sheath to the affected skin; moreover, surgical treatments can be combined with topical and physical treatments.Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 09/2014; 89(5):784-90. DOI:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142717This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.