Assessing Aggression Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review of Validated Aggression Scales.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:: Every year, millions of people worldwide suffer traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Aggressive behavior, a known psychological symptom following TBI, has been regarded as an obstacle toward rehabilitation. Having measures that accurately assess aggression during rehabilitation is critical toward proper evaluation. OBJECTIVE:: To undertake a systematic review of the validated scales used to assess aggression in the postacute stage (≥3 months) after sustaining a TBI in the adult population. A comprehensive search was performed and studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed in full. Quality and validity of supporting articles were assessed via the Downs and Black and QUADAS checklists along with their supporting statistics. RESULTS:: A total of 1329 articles were reviewed from the literature. Thirty-two were reviewed in detail and 6 studies eventually passed the exclusion criteria. Of these, 6 neuropsychological scales were represented pertaining to the measurement of aggressive behavior; however, only 1 directly addressed the validity of their scale's aggression component. CONCLUSIONS:: Further research is required to establish the validity of scales that specifically address aggression for use in the adult TBI population which could be used to support rehabilitation and social reintegration strategies.
- SourceAvailable from: Marlena M Wald[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Approximately 53,000 persons die from TBI-related injuries annually. During 1989-1998, TBI-related death rates decreased 11.4%, from 21.9 to 19.4 per 100,000 population. This report describes the epidemiology and annual rates of TBI-related deaths during 1997-2007. January 1, 1997-December 31, 2007. Data were analyzed from the CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files, which contain death certificate data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. During 1997-2007, an annual average of 53,014 deaths (18.4 per 100,000 population; range: 17.8-19.3) among U.S. residents were associated with TBIs. During this period, death rates decreased 8.2%, from 19.3 to 17.8 per 100,000 population (p = 0.001). TBI-related death rates decreased significantly among persons aged 0-44 years and increased significantly among those aged ≥75 years. The rate of TBI deaths was three times higher among males (28.8 per 100,000 population) than among females (9.1). Among males, rates were highest among non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (41.3 per 100,000 population) and lowest among Hispanics (22.7). Firearm- (34.8%), motor-vehicle- (31.4%), and fall-related TBIs (16.7%) were the leading causes of TBI-related death. Firearm-related death rates were highest among persons aged 15-34 years (8.5 per 100,000 population) and ≥75 years (10.5). Motor vehicle-related death rates were highest among those aged 15-24 years (11.9 per 100,000 population). Fall-related death rates were highest among adults aged ≥75 years (29.8 per 100,000 population). Overall, the rates for all causes except falls decreased. Although the overall rate of TBI-related deaths decreased during 1997-2007, TBI remains a public health problem; approximately 580,000 persons died with TBI-related diagnoses during this reporting period in the United States. Rates of TBI-related deaths were higher among young and older adults and certain minority populations. The leading external causes of this condition were incidents related to firearms, motor vehicle traffic, and falls. Accurate, timely, and comprehensive surveillance data are necessary to better understand and prevent TBI-related deaths in the United States. CDC multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files can be used to monitor the incidence of TBI-related deaths and assist public health practitioners and partners in the development, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies to reduce and prevent TBI-related deaths in the United States. Rates of TBI-related deaths are higher in certain population groups and are primarily related to specific external causes. Better enforcement of existing seat belt laws, implementation and increased coverage of more stringent helmet laws, and the implementation of existing evidence-based fall-related prevention interventions are examples of interventions that can reduce the incidence of TBI in the United States.MMWR. Surveillance summaries: Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries / CDC 05/2011; 60(5):1-32.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The question as to whether mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in persisting sequelae over and above those experienced by individuals sustaining general trauma remains controversial. This prospective study aimed to document outcomes 1 week and 3 months post-injury following mTBI assessed in the emergency department (ED) of a major adult trauma center. One hundred and twenty-three patients presenting with uncomplicated mTBI and 100 matched trauma controls completed measures of post-concussive symptoms and cognitive performance (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery; ImPACT) and pre-injury health-related quality of life (SF-36) in the ED. These measures together with measures of psychiatric status (the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]) pre- and post-injury, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, Functional Assessment Questionnaire, and PTSD Checklist-Specific, were re-administered at follow-up. Participants with mTBI showed significantly more severe post-concussive symptoms in the ED and at 1 week post-injury. They performed more poorly than controls on the Visual Memory subtest of the ImPACT at 1 week and 3 months post-injury. Both the mTBI and control groups recovered well physically, and most were employed 3 months post-injury. There were no significant group differences in psychiatric function. However, the group with mild TBI was more likely to report ongoing memory and concentration problems in daily activities. Further investigation of factors associated with these ongoing problems is warranted.Journal of neurotrauma 03/2011; 28(6):937-46. DOI:10.1089/neu.2010.1516 · 3.97 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The estimated number of new HIV infections in the United States reflects the leading edge of the epidemic. Previously, CDC estimated HIV incidence in the United States in 2006 as 56,300 (95% CI: 48,200-64,500). We updated the 2006 estimate and calculated incidence for 2007-2009 using improved methodology. We estimated incidence using incidence surveillance data from 16 states and 2 cities and a modification of our previously described stratified extrapolation method based on a sample survey approach with multiple imputation, stratification, and extrapolation to account for missing data and heterogeneity of HIV testing behavior among population groups. Estimated HIV incidence among persons aged 13 years and older was 48,600 (95% CI: 42,400-54,700) in 2006, 56,000 (95% CI: 49,100-62,900) in 2007, 47,800 (95% CI: 41,800-53,800) in 2008 and 48,100 (95% CI: 42,200-54,000) in 2009. From 2006 to 2009 incidence did not change significantly overall or among specific race/ethnicity or risk groups. However, there was a 21% (95% CI:1.9%-39.8%; p = 0.017) increase in incidence for people aged 13-29 years, driven by a 34% (95% CI: 8.4%-60.4%) increase in young men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a 48% increase among young black/African American MSM (12.3%-83.0%; p<0.001). Among people aged 13-29, only MSM experienced significant increases in incidence, and among 13-29 year-old MSM, incidence increased significantly among young, black/African American MSM. In 2009, MSM accounted for 61% of new infections, heterosexual contact 27%, injection drug use (IDU) 9%, and MSM/IDU 3%. Overall, HIV incidence in the United States was relatively stable 2006-2009; however, among young MSM, particularly black/African American MSM, incidence increased. HIV continues to be a major public health burden, disproportionately affecting several populations in the United States, especially MSM and racial and ethnic minorities. Expanded, improved, and targeted prevention is necessary to reduce HIV incidence.PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e17502. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0017502 · 3.53 Impact Factor