Literature data show that administration of atypical antipsychotic drug, risperidone (RIS), enhances antidepressive action of fluoxetine (FLU). As antidepressive treatments also regulate immune functions, we examined whether combined administration of FLU and RIS to rats subsequently subjected to a forced swimming test (FST) modifies parameters of macrophage activity that are directly related to their immunomodulatory functions, i.e., arginase (ARG) activity and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis.
Antidepressive action of the drugs was assessed with FST. Peritoneal and pleural cells were eluted and selected parameters of immunoreactivity were assessed colorimetrically.
We found that the concomitant administration of FLU (10 mg/kg) and RIS (0.1 mg/kg) produced antidepressive-like effects in the FST,whereas the drugs were ineffective if administered separately. Stress related to the FST affected immune cell redistribution and changed some of the metabolic and immunomodulatory properties of macrophages. FLU administered to rats at a suboptimal dose for antidepressive action potently influenced macrophage immunomodulatory properties and redirected their activity toward anti-inflammatory M2 functional phenotype, as manifested by changes in the ARG/NO ratio. These effects resulted from a direct cellular influence of the drug, as well as its action via neuroendocrine pathways, as evidenced in peritoneal and pleural cells. Addition of RIS did not augment immunomodulatory action of FLU, though the combination showed antidepressant-like activity in the FST.
Our results suggest that when the drugs were administered together, FLU was potent enough to redirect macrophages toward M2 activity. It is also postulated that drug-induced changes in the immune system are not so closely related to antidepressant-like effects or might be secondary to those produced in the neuroendocrine system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a severe medical condition with multiple manifestations and diverse, largely unknown etiologies. The immune system, particularly macrophages, plays an important role in the pathology of the illness. Macrophages represent a heterogeneous population of immune cells that is dispersed throughout the body. The central nervous system is populated by several types of macrophages, including microglia, perivascular cells, meningeal and choroid plexus macrophages and pericytes. These cells occupy different brain compartments and have various functions. Under basal conditions, brain macrophages support the proper function of neural cells, organize and preserve the neuronal network and maintain homeostasis. As cells of the innate immune system, they recognize and react to any disturbances in homeostasis, eliminating pathogens or damaged cells, terminating inflammation and proceeding to initiate tissue reconstruction. Disturbances in these processes result in diverse pathologies. In particular, tissue stress or malfunction, both in the brain and in the periphery, produce sustained inflammatory states, which may cause depression. Excessive release of proinflammatory mediators is responsible for alterations of neurotransmitter systems and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. Almost all antidepressive drugs target monoamine or serotonin neurotransmission and also have anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive properties. In addition, non-pharmacological treatments, such as electroconvulsive shock, can also exert anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies have shown that antidepressive therapies can affect the functional properties of peripheral and brain macrophages and skew them toward the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Because macrophages can affect outcome of inflammatory diseases, alleviate sickness behavior and improve cognitive function, it is possible that the effects of antidepressive treatments may be, at least in part, mediated by changes in macrophage activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental and non-experimental stress significantly increase masseter muscle tone, which has been linked to the symptoms and pathogenesis of several stomatognathic system diseases. Until now, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has remained unclear. The current study was performed to determine the mechanism of the stress-induced increase in masseter muscle tone and to investigate the effect of lamotrigine on this change. Animals challenged by repeated restraint stress received either saline as a vehicle or lamotrigine in doses of 20, 30 or 40 mg/kg body weight, whereas control animals received saline without stress treatment. Masseter muscle tone was assessed using electromyography. The activity of glutamate-related metabolic enzymes (glutaminase and glutamine synthetase) in the trigeminal motor nucleus was also investigated. Our results showed an interesting phenomenon: masseter muscle activity increased concurrently with the upregulation of the glutamate concentration after stress treatment. The activities of glutaminase and glutamine synthetase in the trigeminal motor nucleus were also upregulated and downregulated, respectively, when the rats were challenged by prolonged stress. The animals treated with lamotrigine at moderate and high doses had significantly decreased masseter muscle tone compared with stressed animals treated with vehicle. These results suggested that increased glutaminase activity and decreased glutamine synthetase activity increased glutamate production and decreased glutamate decomposition, causing an increase in glutamate levels in the trigeminal motor nucleus and eventually increasing masseter muscle tone. The administration of lamotrigine at doses of 30 or 40 mg/kg body weight effectively mitigated the adverse effects of stress on masseter muscle tone via inhibition of glutamate release.
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