Dermoscopy for the Pediatric Dermatologist Part I: Dermoscopy of Pediatric Infectious and Inflammatory Skin Lesions and Hair Disorders
ABSTRACT The dermoscope allows physicians to examine the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. This review summarizes important dermoscopic structures seen in infectious and inflammatory skin conditions and hair disorders in children. Scabies, pediculosis, phthiriasis, molluscum contagiosum, tinea nigra, and verrucae are well characterized dermoscopically by delta-shaped structures, ovoid-shaped nits, the crab louse, red corona, brown strands or spicules, and multiple densely packed papilla with a central black dot surrounded by a whitish halo, respectively. These dermoscopic structures will be discussed, focusing on the dermoscopic morphologies and dermoscopic sensitivity for diagnosis and its utility in monitoring treatment progress. Dermoscopy has also been shown to significantly improve the clinician's diagnostic and monitoring accuracy of inflammatory skin lesions such as psoriasis, which is characterized dermoscopically by uniformly distributed dotted blood vessels, and lichen planus, which is characterized by whitish lines on a purple to reddish background. Dermoscopy of the hair and scalp (trichoscopy) facilitates the differential diagnosis of hair diseases in children, including alopecia areata, trichotillomania, and tinea capitis. It can also assist in the diagnosis of multiple genetic hair shaft disorders, such as monilethrix, trichorrhexis invaginata, trichorrhexis nodosa, pili torti, and pili annulati.
SourceAvailable from: Alessandro Terrinoni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pediatric erythroderma is a severe cutaneous disorder, which may pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Psoriasis, ichthyoses, atopy, seborrhoeic dermatitis, pityriasis rubra pilaris, infections, metabolic diseases, drugs reaction, may cause erythroderma. The therapy should be tailored on each aetiology, if possible. The biochemical and metabolic imbalance should be corrected, and particular attention should be paid to the psychosocial behavior often related to this disfiguring disease. Two 3 year-old Caucasian twins have been suffering from an unmanageable erythroderma since the age of 8 months. The diagnosis of psoriasis, already remarkably expressed in the father's family in three cases of fraternal twins, could be enforced for several points. Major histocompatibility complex, class I, Cw*06 was detected in both twins; we found no transglutaminase-1, no corneodesmosin, nor any Interleukin-36 receptor antagonist gene mutations. We performed a cutaneous histology, positive immunostaining for Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor, dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy. The twins had previously received systemic steroids, short cycles of low-dosage ciclosporine, followed by etanercept at the dosage of 0,8 mg/kg, without reliable results. Cyclosporine was then reconsidered at a dosage of 5 mg/kg/day with close blood monitoring. After three months of treatment, consistent clearing and significant improvement of their social and psychological behaviour were achieved. After over one year of continuous therapy with cyclosporine, the twins have still maintained the result obtained. Pediatric erythroderma may pose a great challenge as a potentially life-threatening condition causing extreme distress in children, parents and pediatricians. In young patients it is mandatory to establish correct clinical and instrumental procedures, possibly supplemented by genetic analyses such as those we required, in order to determine an effective and safe therapy in terms of cost-benefit and put patients and family in the best condition to perform common daily activities.BMC Research Notes 12/2014; 7(1):929. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-929
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ABSTRACT: Background. The scalp represents a special region for the manifestation of pathogen-induced diseases. Objective. This article describes practice-relevant pathogen-induced skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Material and methods. Currently available publications were evaluated with special reference to therapeutic developments. Results. Bacterial infections of the scalp must be treated consistently in the initial stages in order to avoid severe consequences. Skin diseases caused by fungi must be treated topically (e.g. neonatal cephalic pustulosis) or systemically and topically (e.g. tinea). Varicella zoster diseases in children and adults are treated differently. A safe and highly effective physically effective substance is now available for pediculosis capitis (head lice). Conclusion. Dermatologically relevant pathogen-induced diseases of the scalp can be well treated; however, tinea capitis still proves to be a special problem due to a lack of approved substances and long-term therapy.Der Hautarzt 11/2014; 65(12). DOI:10.1007/s00105-014-3545-1 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monilethrix is a rare hereditary condition generally considered to be an autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance. A case of a 6-year-old girl without a familial background for this disease is reported. The diagnosis was made by optic microscopy and dermoscopy. A therapeutic trial with topical minoxidil was conducted.